Write short note on Garbage (waste product).

Garbage (Waste Product)

Garbage is a great environmental hazard. Garbage comes from wastes, kitchen wastes, vegetable refuse, used papers, tiffin packings, plastic bags, ice cream wrappers, bottle caps, pencil stubs. Garbage makes the premises ugly, unkempt breeds disease and gives the impression of very poor house-keeping.

What can we do with Garbage

Do not burn it, because

(i) it contains materials that can be recycled, such as paper, metals and glass

(ii) it contains organic matter, such as leaves which can enrich soil fertility.

(iii) burning garbage causes pollution.

Maintain a Composit Pit: In a convenient location in or around the school campus make a compost pit where all refuse of organic matter can be used for making valuable fertilizer Fallen leaves, wastes food and other organic matter can be put into the pit with thin layers of soil and occasional sprinkling of water to help decomposition. The compost is better than chemical fertilizers and can be used in the school garden.

Grow a garden and plant trees: Planting trees is one of the most important things required for improving our environment. Look at your school campus and see how it can be made greener by growing a garden and planting trees. There is much to be learned about nature by watching plants grow and observing animals life.

Trees reduce the hazards of pollution and help maintain the carbon dioxide balance of the atmosphere. Make campus greening a part of the school’s educational programme.

Write short note on Acid Rain.

Acid Rain

Acid rain is a matter of great global concern and has become one of the major environmental problems. The term ‘acid rain’ used first by Robert Angus Smith, the Chief Alkali Inspector of UK in 1872, described the acidic
nature of rain falling around Manchester. Acid rain is commonly defined as “a condition in which acidic after reacting chemically with pollutants the air”.

Among air pollutants sulphur and nitrogen are significant compounds. In particular, sulphur dioxide (S02) and oxides of nitrogen (NO and N02) are released from a variety of sources sulphur dioxide reacts in air to form sulphur trioxide. In turn sulphur trioxde reacts rapidly with atmospheric moisture to produce sulfuric acid.
Sulphur trioxide + Water sulfuric acid.

Similarly, the oxides of nitrogen react in air to produce nitric acid. Both these acids are very strong acids. These materials, when present in the atmosphere, dissolve in water droplets and fall to earth as acid rain.
Under normal conditions, rain water is slightly acidic because carbon dioxide dissolves in it and reacts to form a weak acid, which is not harmful. But main’s contribution through fossil fuel , power plants, industries, automobiles has disturbed this natural acidic balance and inverted natural rain into precipitated acid rain with several environmental implications.

The ill effects of acid rain can be found on vegetation, soil, marine resources, monuments as well as on man. Air pollutants and acids generated by industrial activities are now entering forests at an unprecedented scale. Many forests in Europe and North America now receive as much as 30 times more acidity than they would if rain and snow fell without pollutants. Its reaction includes change in colour of leaves, premature drops of leaves and flowers, tree crowns progressively thin, and ultimately, trees die. Marine resources can be totally devastated with loss of aquatic life, fishes can die and entire lakes and streams can be destroyed. The affected fishes, if consumed by humans and birds, cause dangerous effects. In soil, the rate of decomposition of organic matter and formation of nitrogen fixing organisms is reduced by acids. Human health may also be affected increasing respiratory and skin problems.

Acid rain is an increasing problem in industrial areas of America, Europe and Asia. Where large amount of fossil fuels are burned. The ill effects of acid rains have no national limits as nature knows no geographical boundaries. Only developed technology can save the world from ill effects
of acid rain.

Write an essay on Greenhouse Effect ?

The phenomenon commonly known as greenhouse effect occurs due to emission of certain gaseous pollutants in the air which after the heating of the atmosphere, causes the average global temperature to rise. The effect produced by certain gases, such as carbon dioxide or water vapour, that cause a warming of the earth’s atmosphere by absorption of infra-red radiation. The atmosphere protects us by serving as a light scattering and heat mediating blanket. A large portion’ of heat emitted from the earth is absorbed by the atmosphere and is, in effect, conserved, with the result that the surface of the Earth is warmer than it otherwise would be. In simple words, this warming is called the greenhouse effect, by analogy with the ability of a greenhouse to keep its inside warmer than the outside during the day time.

The atmospheric concentration of these gases has relatively inccreased since the advent of the industrial era. There has emerged a growing consensus in the scientific community that the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, CFCs methane and low level ozone threatens to disrupt human societies and natural ecosystems.
The developed world accounted for nearly 80 per cent of the total industrial carbon dioxide emission of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, CFCs methane and low level ozone threatens to disrupt human societies and natural ecosystems.

The developed world accounted for nearly 80 per cent of the total industrial carbon dioxide emissions and the rest of 20 per cent originated in the developing world. On the other hands. 98 per cent CFCs are produced in developed and two per cent in developing world. With the current trend emissions a WHO study speculates that the combined effects of the six most important greenhouse gases could by the early years of 2030s commit the global warming equivalent to doubling of pre-industrial concentrations of carbon dioxide. The scientists are of the opinion that the earth will be hotter by 2 to 4 c by the middle of the 21st century.

The atmospheric blanket keeps the earth habitable and protects living forms from fatal radiations of the sun. The atmosphere intercepts solar radiation, reflecting a third of it while the rest is absorbed by the atmosphere, ocean, ice, land and biosphere. The energy absorbed balanced by the outgoing radiation from the atmosphere and the earth. This vital balance will be altered with infringement of greenhouse effect resulting an overall rise in the average global temperature.

Among the most dramatic consequences of the greenhouse climatic disruption is an unprecedented rise in global sea levels to the extent of 8 to 25.5 inches by the end of the century if gas emissions continue at the present rate Melting of polar ice and glaciers, thermal expansion of seas would cause world-wide coastal flooding and rise in sea level will result in submergence of many coastal areas. It will not only effect the ecological balance but will be a threat to the people and economy of the countries like Bangladesh, Netherlands, as well as to many coastal and island countries. In fact, the impact of world-wide climatic disruption could have hazardous consequences for the survival of the planet both biologically and economically. The Montreal Protocol was a step in this direction but an overall solution requires a combined efforts of all nations and international bodies. Apart from this, scientific and technological research in this field can also reduce the risk to a great extent, provided it reaches all nations specially to the developing nations.

Describe the thinning of ozone layer in detail ? 

Thinning of Ozone Layer: Ozone is a form of oxygen with three forms instead of the normal two and forms a fragile shield scattered in the stratosphere absorbing sun’s ultra violet radiation. Near the earth’s surface, Ozone is a an increasingly troublesome pollutant, but safely up at a height of 20 to 30 kilometres from the earth in the atmosphere, it is a important to life, as important to life as oxygen itself.

The thinning of this layer has generated global concern. This is due to several chemical pollutants discharged by industries or produced through other chemical reactions. Chiorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are inert, inexpensive, stable, non-inflammable, non-toxic, easy to store and produce. The Population explosion is one of the causes of the increase of CFCs due to use of air conditioners, insulation, solvents and fire-killers. In 1986, three US agencies, viz., National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Fedra1 Aviation Administration (FAA) started reporting on ground and satellae-based data on ozone depletion in stratosphere by the use of chemicals like halon 1301, methyl the chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, solvents-FC-1 13, aerosols, foams and refrigeration CFC- 11, and air conditioning CFC- 12 that are depleting the ozone layer 4,5,8,12 and 26 percent, respectively, on global scale, because of human activities. As for as CFC regional consumption, USA is on top consuming 29 percent, Russia and Europe 14 percent while in China and India it is merely 2 percent. The total ozone amounts in the northern hemisphere, middle and high latitudes have decreased, and sudden and unexpected decrease in the amount of spring time Antarctic zone is confirmed on 15 to 20 km in the stratosphere ozone layer.

The increase in ozone layer depletion will invite the lethal ultra violet rays from the sun which will increase cancer, eye damage, injure plants and marine life and even reduce our immunity to diseases. The UV-B damages the genetic material even reduces the efficiency of the immune system, thus impairing the body’s resistance. Experts are of the opinion that animal and plant would face a grim challenge if radiations are not checked. Certain crops have been found vulnerable to such radiations. Under impacts of radiations proteins in plants, microbes and animals would be affected and such changes in spatial orientation would be critical in the formed part of the reaction centre of an enzyme. Near cities where population concentration is more, ozone could be formed near the earth’s surface having disastrous effects on human health, crops and ecosystems. It would also increase the incidence of smog in areas of industrial concentration. Ozone has had its effect on the earth’s climate by adding to the greenhouse effects.

The world has now been serious about the most dramatic evidence of ozone depletion a “hole” in the ozone layer which appears every spring over the Antarctica. This hole has grown over the last ten years. Till now, no clear explanation has been found to explain this phenomenon scientific research in this field is in progress. But general opinion regarding the cause of this depletion is the CFC. The countries of the world now have started serious thinking about his problem. In fact, this is the duty of the developed countries, who have technology and infrastructure, to check the ozone depletion. Because this problem is not a problem of individual nations, therefore, combined efforts can only check the ozone depletion.

The concern about ozone layer protection began by the late 1 970s and early 1980s. In 1978 the United States banned the principal CFCs for most uses; in 1980 European Community countries placed a limit on production of CFCs and cut their use in aerosol products by 30 per cent. Sweden, Norway and Canada also placed limits on CFC use. In 1975 UNEP has also expressed serious concern about ozone depletion and also developed a World Plant of Action on the Ozone Layer. Some of the important international actions taken on ozone protection are listed below:

1977 UNEP Coordinating Committee on the ozone layer established.
1985 Vienna Convention of the protection of ozone layer.
1987 Motreal Protocol in substances that deplete the ozone layer.
1988 Entry into force of the Vienna Convention.
1989 Entry into force of the Motreal Protocol.
1990 Montreal Protocol amended in London. The amendment required signatory governments to regulate consumption and production of CFCs.
Jan.1991 Establishment of interim multilateral fund to provide financial assistance to developing countries in order to facilitate control meansures.
May 1992 112 states have ratified the amendment to the Montreal Protocol.
Aug. 1992 Entry into force of the amendment.
Nov. 1992 Act Copenhagen, parties agreed to accelerate, phase out schedule, to Jan.1996

Both the state and non state actors played major roles in the regime building process. To a large extent, their roles were determined by their position in the global economic systems. There is a need of greater cooperation between developed and developing nations in the field of ozone layer protection because ozone depletion involves the atmosphere, which is a common property resources.

What an essay on Global Warming ?

Global Warming

Global warming refers to gradual rise in atmospheric and ground surface air temperature and consequent change in global radiation balance caused mainly by anthropogenic processes leading to climatic change at different levels (e.g. local, regional and global). It may be pointed out that the pattern of global rise in air temperature has been studied and reported by different scientists and agencies but their results are not uniform. Radiative forcing, as defined and used by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1990), refers to the effects which green house gases have in altering the energy balance of the ‘earth-atmosphere system’ (GWP) is used as a tool to compare the relative warming effect of different gases.

It has been estimated that the overall increase in the surface air temperature over the past one hundred years has been about .05°C to 0.7°C. According to another view the average air temperature in the northern hemisphere increased by 0.4°C between 1880 and 1940 because of rapid rate of combustion of fossil fuels during this period but the temperature dropped after 1950 in spite of continued rapid rate of combustion of fossil fuels due to fast industrial growth but soon after 1940 the air temperature in the southern hemisphere showed rising trend which registered an overall increase of 0.6°C between 1940 and 1960. Another source has indicated an increase in air temperature by 1 .5°C up to 1995 while other sources have shown general air temperature rise ranging between 0.3°C and 0.6°C. It may be mentioned that rise of 2°C temperature was recorded in the Indian Ocean during 1997-1998 which caused catastrophic coral bleaching leading to 70 percent death of corals in the Andaman Nicobar and the Lakshwadeep Islands.

Various models have been developed to predict global rise in air temperature. S.H. Schneider (1950) pointed out that the temperature could rise upto 1.5°C to 3°C if the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide could be doubled from the 300 ppmv level to 600 ppmv. The general Circulation Model developed by S.Manabe and R.T. Wetherald (1975) predicts that if the present amount of carbon dioxide of the atmosphere is doubled, the temperature of the earth’s surface will increase by 2.9°C.

Write short note on Strategies for conservation of wildlife

Strategies for Conservation of Wildlife : The conservation of living organisms is concerned with plants, animals and microbes of the biosphere in such a way that it would give great benefit to the present as well as future generations of man without reducing the potential. It takes into consideration the following objectives:

(i) Maintenance of ecological equilibrium between biotic and abiotic components.

(ii) Ensuring the optimum utilization of the existing plants and animals minimizing chance of their disappearance during the course of time.
(iii) Preservation of the total gene pools of the different species in the world.

It would be appropriate to mention some of the important steps proposed by various agencies of the world to save the existing wildlife.

(i) Wile life sanctuaries and national parks should be made keeping in mind the feeding, breeding and environmental needs of species concerned.

(ii) Proper planning of land and water utilization should be done to ensure the protection of wild life in their natural habitats such as zoo and botanic gardens.

(iii) Special attention should be given to conserve the species which fall in the category of endangered, vulnerable or rare species.

(iv) Attempts should be made at national level to identify natural habitats for specific wild animals and plants.

(v) The ecosystems having endangered or vulnerable species should be given priority with regard to their protection. The use of only such species or individuals should be allowed which will not disturb the balance in the ecosystem.

(vi) The protection of wild relatives of our food crops, forage plants and domesticated animals should be given priority because they are needed for introduction of desirable characters during the breeding programmes at national and international levels.

(vii) In the introduction of species between two countries, bilateral agreements should be reached to establish required network depending upon the need of the species.

(viii) Alternative measures should be adopted to allow the survival of a species being exploited by a country or a community or an industry.

(ix) The genetic diversity of a species should be safeguarded keeping in mind the international protection progammes, e.g., MAB (Man and Biosphere) project of UNESCO, and setting up of national parks and protected areas as suggested by JUCN.

What are the main causes of wild life depletion? 

Causes of wild Life Depletion : During the recent past, there has been a sudden decline in the number of wild animals. The hunting leopard or Cheetah is now extinct. The one horned Rhinoceros has survived because of the protective steps taken by the Government. The sanctuary of Givr forest has saved the lions from extinction. The great Indian Bustard is now facing extinction. Many ducks have become extinct in recent years.

1. Habitat Alterations:
(a) Absence of cover or shelter: The forest vegetation, tall grasses, margins of rivers, uneven ground etc. are used as cover of shelter by the wild animals. For example, the tall grass in the Kaziranga Sanctuary are used as cover by the Rhinos. Once cover is absent animals will not survive even if food and water are available in plenty.
(b) Pollution : The rivers and streams that run through the forests and plains contain untreated effluents of many factories which make the river waters unsafe for drinking and may even act as killing agents. Drinking. polluted water exposes them to disease and predation.
(c) Reduction in the area of Movement:  The forest area is being increasingly converted into cultivable lands. This reduces the freedom of movement of the wild animals to a large extent. Animals like deer, bison, tiger, rhino etc. are unable to maintain their numbers when confined to relatively small areas. This is one of the reasons why the wild animals in the zoo rarely reproduce.
(d) Destruction of wild plants : In order to get more timber, charcoal and firewood man has cut and destroyed many wild plants which form the main food of these animals Food is one of the major factors of the habitat which controls distribution and numbers of wild animals. The absence of the chief food may even end in ultimate depletion and extinction of some wild animals.
(e) Building roads and railways : For the improvement of our transport system a net work of roads and railways are built up. Most of the road and railway routes pass through the dense forests. This delimits the area of movement for the animals. Moreover, the timid animals shun away from the noise of passing vehicles.

2. Nature of Man : In the words of the Late pandit Nehru “In spite of our culture and civilization man continues to be wild but more dangerous than any of the so called wild animals.” Even rules and regulation may not help if people don’t improve in their attitude. The ignorance of the common man regarding the value of our wild life and the consequential indifference to what happens to them disappear. The day must come when man must feel that it is more exciting to shoot with a camera than with a gun.

3. Hunting:
(a) Hunting for pleasure : Among the rich people of India it was and is still a pastime to go hunting for pleasure. With the improvement of the nature of fire arms today and with modern aids like jeeps, binoculars and flash lights the number of animals shot for pleasure seems to be increasing beyond leaps and bounds.
(b) Bad hunting methods : Some primitive tribes use poison as a method for hunting. This results in the death of may animals. Other bad methods of hunting include setting fire to forest areas to drive away animals in one direction for being shot.
(c) Hunting for money : In a poor country like India there is always a great clamour for quick easy money. Hunting offers good prospects in this regard. The prices of animal products are always spiraling. A good tiger skin is worth three to five thousands rupees. Similarly, the tusks of elephants, and the skins of other big cats are also costly. The horns of rhinoceros carry fancy price. This has lead to the unlimited slaugher of these animals. Many big snakes are now reduced in number due to the export of snake skins. The meat of many animals like deer, will boar and Nilgai has always been in great demand and attracting many professional hunters.

4. Legal Lapse : The protection of wild life is a state subject and many state governments are unable to protect the wild life by suitable laws. The existing laws are inadequate and there is lack of enforcement of the
protective laws.

Explain the management of forest?

To encourage forestation and prevent wasteful approach of human beings, introduction of proper management methods is necessary. This would check block cutting, deforestation, pest and fire control. A recycling procedure ensuring continuous supply of forest products should be planned on long- term basis, so that the forest resources could last for a larger period. It is very important for our very, survival. For example, we need the modest- timber supply annually and this harvested crops should be replaced by an equal amount of timber crop growth. Timber trees grow mature in 15 to 100 years, so its recycling should be planned accordingly.

(1) Block cutting method is generally adopted in the forest which have even aged trees, of a few species only. Coniferous forests are cut in this way. Thus a particular area is denoted by cutting down its entire tree population. Such area may be in the centre of interior of the forest and the last forest area is replaced by reforestation of adjacent area of the same size. This would result in a sustained supply of forest products without adversely affecting the actual size of the forest. Thus the annual forest cutting is followed by annual replantation of the deforested areas. Deforestation should take place in a limited area only. Thus the forests would be conserved and its yield should be high. It would last for a very long period.

(2) By effective forest management, floods, soil erosion end expansion of desert can be checked. Floods in our country, to. a large extent is a result of indiscriminate and excessive deforestation every year. Moreover there are no effective measures to force replantation of trees in denuded area. Illegal falling of in nature trees add more problems. It is to be checked immediately.

(3) Forest and wild life conservation are intra-related as the forests serve as the best habitat for them The forests serve natural home for game animals. But due to deforestation and hunting, tiger and lions alongwith others, have undergone extinction.

(4) Parasitic fingi such as rusts, smuts and mildews, viruses and insects are some of the disease causing agents in the forest. Biological controls can be introduced. The insects bug feeds upon the weed Lantana and thus it can control its growth. Thus in such control, the biological agent is introduced to remove the undesirable species from an area. Some of the fungal viral resistant species of the forest trees have been produced and introduced in the forests.

(5) Timber is an important product of forest tress which is of high economical value. After removing the stem of timber trees, which are main source of timber, stumps, leaves, barks are left behind as waste.

A proper management of timber forests can only ensure this. This needs further plantation of forests in such a way that is double to deforestation, improved timber quality through genetic research, avoidance of useful cutting, control of forest, introduction of pests resistant varieties of trees and a planned, falling of trees.

Explain the Land and Water Management in India. Discuss Waste Land Development. 

India is a predominantly agricultural country. A large number of our industries also depend on agriculture. A survey of the present status of land in India has shown that most of our croplands, woodlands and grasslands have already become deteriorated owing to faulty agricultural practices. Soil erosion, deforestation, water logging, salination and urban encroachment have considerably affected our productive lands.
Out of India’s total land mass of 305 million hectares (ha) nearly half is considered as waste land. Around 18 million he are under urban and productive use. Another 21 million ha are rocky or snow-bound. Of the remaining 266 million are culturable waste, 23 million hectares are fallows, 83 million ha are classified as forests and pasture land and 143 million hectares are agricultural land.

The man-land ratio is very low in India. Due to high population pressure the per capita available land in our country is only 0.48 hectare. We must learn to survive with this serious limitation. This requires understanding, planning and integrated management of land and water.

The Himalaya is one of the most crucial watersheds in the world with very high sedimentation rate. Execution of environmentally unsound
developmental plans and defective land use in the mountains have created
grave problems in the plains of India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Every year over 400 million people are ravaged by recurring floods and their consequences. With increasing misuse of the Himalayan slopes, damage to reservoirs and irrigation system is accelerating.

The treatment of catchments should be done on an environmentally sound basis. It must begin from the top-most reaches of the catchment. The land to be conserved should be planted with economically and socially useful trees and grasses, chosen according to edaphic and climatic conditions and local needs.

The productivity to canal irrigated lands in India is still very poor in comparison with that in other countries because of water — logging and salinity. Proper drainage and desalination practices can overcome these problems.

One untapped source of water in India is the ground water. There are several advantages in using ground water, These are:
(i) It can be tapped in a very short time.
(ii) The cost of tube-wells is low.
(lii) It is easier to raise the interest Of the farmers.
(iv) Irrigation is highly economical because it does not involve storage and transport.
(v) It is not vulnerable to evaporation and seepage losses.
(vi) The ground water is especially suitable in canal command areas because it helps in lowering the water tables and
(vii) A large amount of ground water is available even in dçsert areas.
A scientific investigation of the ground water potential together with the replenishment rates should be undertaken.

Wasteland Development

To meet the needs of the increasing population, the demand on land for agriculture, industry and settlement is increasing. On the other hand good land is shrinking due to degradation. As explained above, a large part of our country’s land is considered as wasteland. Wastelands can be broadly classified into two types : culturable wastelands (ravenous and gullied lands. Surface water-logged land and march, saline lands and lands with lateritic soils, shifting cultivation areas, degraded, forest lands, strip lands, mining and industrial wastelands, etc.) and unculturable wastelands (barren rocky areas, steep slopes, snow-capped mountains and glaciers). Development and reclamation of culturable wastelands can increase the availability of land for productivity.

Reclaimation of wasteland involves high expenditure, expertise and manpower. But wasteland that is reclaimable within the financial means and known techniques should be immediately undertaken. There are over 87 million hectare (ha) of agricultural land prone to degradation by severe erosion. This land must be saved on a priority basis measures that will minimize soil erosion. Some of these practices are creation of shelter belts, revegetation of steep slopes etc.

Explain any one problem produced due to urbanization.

Health problem produced due to urbanization

Various type of pollution in the cities have become a world wide problem which has put the human health in danger Despite a rapid progress in medical science the number and the types of diseases have increased in developing countries. In urban areas the overcrowding and noise cause various type of mental and physical diseases. In most of the developing countries it is difficult to provide the town planning and format. With the populations movements towards the urban areas, the diseases like Trachoma, Tuberculosis, parasitosis, Skin diseases are imported. The inflow of people in the urban areas carries along with them. The water affluent and waste disposal problems which cause various diseases in society also act as urbanized pressure.

The poor ventilation in houses, the use of cow dung in food cooking, accumulation of inorganic material etc. cause the rural pollution but the significance of biowaste in making the fertilizers is understood by rural people and many of such tasks are performed by them by naked hands. The absence of proper cleanliness leads to increased population of mosquitoes and flies which are the vectors of various diseases. The growth of the population produces grave problem of habitat and the facilities are associated with it. Except few sky scrappers and new colonies a big part of the population of India is inhabiting in unhealthy situation. In rural areas the positions of huts made up of soil and their living conditions are very poor and are said to be highly dis-satisfactory. Continued increases in population not only produces the present day problems but also presents the acute problems of the future.

Presently the population is increasing with a rapid rate. Its main reason in mainly the low death rate (mortality) and an increase in average span due to better medical facilities, cleanliness and increased facilities for public
health.  

Unplanned industrialisation has far-reaching consequences on ecological balance. For agriculture, it is required to clear forests for land. Also for establishing settlements and factories land is cleared. These settlements and factories may cause pollution if they are not planned properly in terms of space and civic amenities like water and sanitation.

The waste of the factory may get mixed with the water of the local water bodies which would contaminate the water and make it unfit for consumption. The smoke and gases coming out of the chimneys would pollute the air, leading to respiratory disease. Unplanned industrialization would also lead to vehicular traffic, leading to air and noise pollution and overuse of ground water which would result in falling of the water table.