Explain the socio-economic factors controlling population density.


Establishment of industries in the cities resulted in the accumulation of wealth. The property resulted in urban growth, because it attracted persons from nearby villages. The mass migration of persons to cities imposed following problems (i) Overcrowding, leading to the problems of rehabilitation, sanitation and sewage disposal. (ii) Transportation and associated traffic problems. (iii) Environmental pollution, generated by industrial activities and automobiles, (iv) Noise pollution, (v) Various socioeconomic and cultural changes and problems related to juvenile delinquency and crime.  The urbanization has utilized most of our fertile agricultural land for houses, industries, factories, government offices, schools hospitals and for constructing roads etc. This resulted in transport and import of necessary materials from nearby places. All these problems are socio-economic and increasing day by day. The man’s hunger for accumulation of wealth and to’ become supreme has resulted in blind competition of weapons and atomic energy. At present a few men or even one man can destroy the whole human race.

Urbanisation has also disturbed the pre-existing balance in the biosphere and has resulted in the population of those natural resources and air and water which support the world biota and which man utilizes himself. According to Geologists, man is gradually threatening its existence by disturbing the nature in an unplanned way for his physical comforts.

Demographic Factors

Factors that affect population, its growth, distribution and density are called demographic factors. The population (mortality), scarcity of food etc. are the demographic factors controlling the overall pattern of population density. These interact with the environment factors and determine the biotic potential of the population.
A population in its exponential growth phase shows a very high rate population increase. But once it becomes stabilised, the rate of population increase declines. The theory pertaining to such a population is called the Theory of Demographic Transition. A human population has witnessed the same demographic transition which is still exhibited by some of the underdeveloped and developing countries. It must have passed through the following phases in sequence.

1. In the initial growth stage human population has very high birth and death rates prior to.modern era. This is still found in Afganistan and Angola.
2. High birth and death rate in 18th century which are still seen in Pakistan, Indonesia and Bolivia.
3. Nigh birth and moderate death rate in the 19 century exhibited by populations of present day developed countries when these were developing and is seen at present in the presently developing countries like India and Morocco.

Define the term Population. What are the important characteristics of a population?

The world population is derived from the Latin word popular which means people. It is often used to refer human such as the human population in a city. But in the biological sense, a population is an assemblage of organisms (plants or animals) which belong to a single species or to several closely related species occupying a particular area, as for example, bullfrogs in a pond, grasshoppers in a field or pone trees in a forest. According to WYNNE EDWARDS (1965), a population is a self regulating system.

CLARKE (1954) has distinguished two types of population : (I) Monospecific with individuals of the same specific and (2) mixed or polyspecific with individuals of several species.

Characteristics Population – According to THOMAS PARK, a population has several characteristics or attributes which are a function of the whole group and not of the individual. These are —
1. Population density 2. Depression
3. Birth-rate 4. Dispersal
5. Death-rate 6. Biotic potential
7. Age-distribution 8. Population equilibrium
9. Growth form 10. Population fluctuations.

The rapid increase in population over the last four decades is referred to as population exploitation. This has been caused by:
(a) High birth rate
(b) Sharp decline in death rate.
This in turn has been caused by following factors
(i) Universal and early marriage in India.
(ii) Our ability to control famines and epidemics.
(iii) Improved sanitation and medical health facilities.
(iv) Ignorance about and lack of willingness to adopt birth control measures. .

What do you understand by Population Density?

Population density can be defined as the number of individuals per unit area or per unit volume. The units of population density differ in different cases, as for example, the number of squirrels per square mile, the number of earthworms or trees per acre and the number of diatioms per litre of water. When the individual size in a population Is highly variable, some type of biomass or live weight measured. is used as an unit of density. Thus the unit measurement varies for different types of populations.

There are two ways of expressing the population density, the crude density and the ecological density. The crude density is the total number of individual or biomass per unit of total area or total volume. Ecological density is the number of individuals or the biomass per unit of that area or volume which is actually inhabited by those individuals.

Explain the terms (a) Asian Brown Cloud. (b) Ozone Depletion and Indian law on Ozone Protection

(a) Asian Brown Cloud : Media reports by the United Nations Environment Programme (UT painted an alarming picture of “a vast blanket of s South Asia”. It was reported that the “Asian E i damaged agriculture, modified rainfall patterns — including the monsoon-  and put thousands of people at risk through mass-scale respiratory diseases. It says slowly spreading across the whole Asian continent and could have an impact on the climate of the world. However, the UNEPC commissioned report carried out by the Centre for Clouds, chemistry and climate has several caveats about the extent of current knowledge. Many of the findings in the report itself do not support many of the claims being made harmful effects.

It is the aerosols which create the pollution, and these aerosols may be either natural, such as desert sand and sea salt, or created by human activities such as burning wood and fossil fuels. The level and composition of aerosols vary greatly across seasons and from year-to-year. The UNEP report itself points out that the aerosol content in the atmosphere over the South Asian region builds up during October, peaks during February and March, decreases in May and June, and decreases even further during July to September because of the monsoon. So effects attributed to aerosols such as those heating up the lower atmosphere and reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the ground, would also vary enormously.

The UNEP report is largely based on the Indian Ocean Experiment
(Index), which conducted its field campaign in January to April 1999. That
fact restricts the UNEP report to findings in the dry season (December to
April). The vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols in the period
May-November is not known. There are several inconsistencies.

According to the report, the largest fraction (32 per cent) of man made aerosols found during Indoex was composed of sulphates. A graph given in the report, however, clearly shows that sulphur dioxide emissions by North America, Europe, China, and East Asia were many times larger than those of South Asia.

The report’s executive summary says that “while green-house gases warm the surface and increase rainfall, aerosols exerted a cooling and drying effect”. But the results of computer simulations given in the report, however, show that rainfall over much of India during January to March would either remain unaffected or actually increase. The report speaks of “compensated drying” during the wintertime over areas north-west of India and over the western Pacific.

Moreover, the January to March period covered by these computer simulations is after both the south-west monsoon (June to September) and the North-east monsoon (October to December). For India, the average nationwide rainfall for the entire January-March period is only about 12 cm, just 5 per cent of the total annual rainfall. So even if in percentage terms a major shift were to occur, in absolute terms the change would be quite small and its consequences, therefore, less worrisome. There is no evidence the south-west or north-east monsoons would be affected.

As for the effects on agriculture, the Wheat Growth  (WTGROWS) model, when run for the index event for different wheat regions of India showed only a slight, but “statistically non-significant decrease in yield. For rice, the report suggests that there might be a reduction in yield of the rabi crop.


(b) Ozone Depletion and India Law on Ozone Protection: The Sun emits radiation over a broad range of wavelengths, to which human eye responds in the legion from approximately 400 nm to 700 nm. The range can be divided into three categories:

UVA (Ultra violet) – (320-400 nm) not absorbed by ozone.

UVB — (280-320 nm) partially absorbed by ozone.

UVC – (200-280 nm) completely absorbed by ozone

The maximum concentration (about 0.5 ppm) occurs between the altitude of 20 to 35 km and the layer at this level is, called ozone layer. The presence of ozone is an essential necessity for life on earth.

Stratospheric ozone layer absorbs dangerous UVB rays of the Sun and thus protects the Earth’s surface from these high-energy radiation. Over the past few decades Ozone, layer is thinning out because of man-made pollutants which catalyse the dissociation of Ozone, at a very fast rate. Major pollutants responsible for depletion of ozone are chlorofluoro carbons (CFCs), nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and oxides of chlorine and bromine.

Increased uv radiation would retard photosynthesis in plants. Moreover, it would increase earth’s mean temperature which would have disastrous consequence of flooding or submerging many low-laying islands. Recently has been found that the uv radiation degrades polymers used in paints and
building materials.

Most ozones are created and destroyed in the stratosphere. The high uv rays break some of the oxygen molecules into the oxygen atoms.
en atom recombine with the oxygen molecules to form a three atoms molecule of oxygen called ozone. But ozone being highly reactive combines with other compounds present in the stratosphere. This is how ozones are created and destroyed in a balanced way be the Sun’s radiation. However, this balance is disturbed when chlorine atoms, released from the earth, react with the ozone molecules and thus reduces ozone population in the atmosphere. In the event more ozone molecules are destroyed than are created.

The chlorine, atoms, released from man-made materials such as CFCs or Cloro-fluoro Carbons, enter the atmosphere (which takes 50 to 100 years) and break down the bounds holding three atoms of ozone. The chlorine is converted into chlorine monoxide and oxygen is released; This loss of ozone molecules is known as the depletion of the ozone layers. Needless to say, the loss of ozone molecules reduces the ability of the strato sphere to filter out harmful uv rays.

Ozone depletion happens rapidly near the poles in spring because the prevailing low temperature of the stratosphere makes the ozone more vulnerable to reaction with chlorine, Normally, the nitrous oxide destroys the chlorine monoxide and hence prevent the ozone depletion. But the story is quite different in the polar regions. There the nitrous oxide freezes to form ice clouds and chorine monoxide is left free to destroy the ozone molecules.

Montreal Protocol : Considering the monumental damages ozone depletion does, the world community is taking steps to control the ozone depletion. The Montreal Protocol, adopted in 1987 and strengthened in 1990, called for phasing out CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (ODS) by 2000, established rules governing international trade in ODS and their products. Since the developing countries lack the financial and technological means to replace CFC or other ODS such as halous and carbon tetrachloride they have been given a grace period of 10 years, That is they are required to phase out CFCs by 2010.

The protocol called for a multilateral fund to assist the developing countries in the transfer of technology, that eliminates CFC or ODS India is expected to get about $19 billion under the protocol for substituting ODSs India, on its part, has stopped the trade of eight ODSs to those countires which are not signatories to the Protocol But a suitable mechanism to facititate the transfer of technology to the developing countries is still eluding.

Indian Law on Ozone Protection — India has, in response to the Motreal Protocol, notified Ozone Depleting Substance (Regulation and Control) Rules in 2000 These Rules set the deadlines for phasing out various ODS or Ozone Depleting Substances bedsides regulating their production and trade. Under the Rules, the use of CFC, except for medical purposes, will be prohibited after January 1, 2003 The Rules also call for compulsory registration of ODS producers, traders, stockiest etc. India’s per capita consumption of ODS now at less than 3 gm is, well below the permissive level of 300 gm under the Montreal Protocol.

What are the legislative measures adopted for preservation of forests in India ? 

In India, the year 1972 is of significance in the field of environmental management. The National Committee of Environment and Planning and Co-ordination was established and number of measures were undertaken to implement the recommendations already made and to be made thereafter. However, in 1976 the National Commission on Agricultural. However, in 1976 the National Commission of Agricultural realized the improper implementation of the National Forest Policy, 1952 and suggested certain recommendations as the following:

(1) There should be provision for prior approval of the Central before taking action for dereservation or diversion of forest lands to non forest use.

(2) There is need to encourage the large scale industrial plantation to faster growth of forest industries.


To achieve-this object the Indian Forest Act, 1927 was enacted which deals with the four categories of forest, namely —
(1) Chapter — II deals with reserved forests
(2) Chapter — III deals with village forests
(3) Chapter — IV deals with protected forests
(4) Chapter — V deals with non-government foresg
Chapters II, III and IV deal forests which are Governments property. Although chapter — V deals with the forests which are not governments
property. It is to be noted that even the enactment of Indian Forest Act, 1972 failed to achieve the object intended. Therefore, the Forest Ordinance, 1980 was promulgated by President of India, later on the
Ordinance was followed by the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 with the  Objects and Reasons as follows :

“Deforestation causes ecological imbalances and lead to environmental
deterioration. Deforestation has been taking place on large scale in the country and it has caused widespread concern.”

The ordinance also made provision for an Advisory Committee to render advice to the Central Government in matters of such approval. According to Section 2, of the Indian Forest Act, 1927, which provides that:

Not withstanding any things contained in any other law for the time being inforce in a State, no State Government or other authority shall make, except with the prior approval of the Central Government, any order directing—
(i) That any forest land or any portion thereof may be used for any non-forest purpose.
(ii) That any reserved forest (within the meaning of the expression reserved forest, in any law for the time being in force in that State) or any portion thereof shall cease to be reserved.

Explanation — For the purpose of this Section “non forest purpose” means breaking up or cleaning of any forest land or portion thereof for any purpose other than reafforestation.” In this way, now the State Government cannot exercise its power vested under Section 27 of the Indian Forest Act, 1927 or under any other law having a similar provision except with prior approval of the Central Government.

In 1980, the Apex Court dealt with this provision in Ambica Quarry Works Vs. State of Gujarat) Air 1987 SC 1973), popularly known as “Removal of mining lease case” the Court said.

“This rule dealt with a situation prior to the coming into operation of the Indian Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980. The Act makes recognition of the awareness that deforestation and ecological imbalances as a result of deforestation have become social menaces and further deforestation and ecological imbalances should be prevented. That was the primary purpose writ large in the Act of 1980. Therefore, the concept that power coupled with the duty enjoined upon the respondents to renew the lease stands eroded by the mandate of the legislation as manifest in 1980 Act in the facts and circumstances of these cases. The primary duty was to the community and that duty took precedence. In our opinion, in these cases, the obligation to the society must predominate over legislation to individuals.”

Further, the Court observed “In the instant appeals the situation is entirely different. The appellants are asking for a renewal of the quarry leases. It will led to further deforestation or at least it will not help reclaiming back the areas where deforestation have taken place. In that view of the matter in the facts and circumstance of the case, in our opinion, the ration of the said decision (AIR 1987 SC 1973 at p. 14986) cannot be made applicable to support the appellants’ demands, in these cases because the facts are entirely different here. The primary purpose of the Act which must subserve the interpretation in order to implement the Act is to prevent further deforestation. The Central Government has not granted approval.”

It is to be noted that Indian Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 applies to renewals as well as and even if there was a provision for renewal in the lease agreement on exercise of lessee’s option, the requirement of 1980 Act had to be satisfied before such renewal could be granted.

In M.C. Mehta Vs. Union of India (AIR 1987 SC 1086) the Apex Court has held that the principles laid down in Rylands Vs. Fletcher (1968 (19) LT 220) would not be applicable in the Indian context, we have the frame our own rule because Ryland’s case rule was evolved in the context of a totally different kind of economy. We cannot allow our judicial thinking to be constructed by reference to the law as it. prevails in England or for the matters of that in any other foreign country. We no longer need the witness of a foreign legal order. We are certainly to receive light to build up our own jurisprudence and we cannot contemn an argument merely because the new law does not recognize the rule of strict and absolute liability in cases of hazardous or dangerous liability or the rule as laid down in Rylands Vs. Fletcher as is developed in England recognizes certain limitations and responsibilities. We in Indian cannot hold our hands back and I venture to evolve a new principle of liability which English courts have not done. We have to develop our own law and if we find that it is necessary to a new principle of liability to deal with an unusual situation which has arisen and which is likely to arise in future on account of hazard dangerous industries which are concomitant to an industrial economy. There is no reason why we should hesitate to evolve such principal of liability merely because it has not been done so in England.


Any enterprise which poses threat to the health and safety of the persons working in the factory and residing in the surrounding areas, covers an absolute and non-delegable duty to the community to ensure that no harm results to any one on account of hazardous of inherently dangerous nature, of the activity which it has undertaken. The enterprises must be held to be under an obligation to provide that the hazardous or inherently dangerous activity in which it is engaged must be conducted with the highest standards, of safety and if any harm result on an account of such activity, the enterprise must be absolutely liable to compensate for such a harm and should be no answer to the enterprise to say that it has taken all reasonable care and that the harm occurred without any negligence on its part.

Write an essay on environment and law.

Environment includes water, air and land and interrelationship which exists among and between water, air and land, and human beings, other living creatures, plants, micro-organisms and property.

While disposing the case M.C.Mehta Vs. Union of India (1987) Sec. 165, the Supreme Court explained the environment as follows, “A point has, been reached in history when we must shape our actions throughout the world with a more prudent care for the environmental consequences. Through ignorance or indifference we can do massive and irreversible harm to the costly environment on which our life and well being depend. Conversely, through fuller knowledge and wider action, we can achieve for ourselves and our posterity better life in an environment more in keeping with human needs and hopes. There are broad vistas for the enhancement of environmental quality and the creation of a good life.”

Environment is a combination of the various physical and biological elements that affect the life of an organism. The Indian Parliament brought various environmental legislation including the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981, the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, the Wild life Protection Act 1992 etc. The legislation brought in India spread the environmental awareness in the Indian people. The environment can be controlled by law.

Environments is God Gift. Water, air. Soil are the most important things for living being. Since the starting of existence of living beings physical and biological processes have been continuing in the environment. However, these normal environmental processes are adversely affected by the contamination by human beings by excess use of natural resources and human resources.
(1) Natural Environment pollution, (2) Population growth, (3) Industrialization,

The first category of environmental pollution is caused by nature. The second and third categories are caused by artificial pollution that too mainly by human interference. The nature adjusts the natural environmental pollution caused by it gradually. It is a natural phenomenon. However, the artificial pollution caused by population growth and industrialization has already destroyed the environment. It has to be checked. These are checked by laws or by framing legislation. Various laws have been framed by our Indian Legislators in the regard. The preamble of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 says that the Act is to provide for the protection and improvement of environment and for matters connected there with.

The Supreme Court adopted ‘Polluter’ pays principle. This principle demands that the financial costs of preventing or remedying damage caused by pollution should lie with the undertakings which cause the pollution or produce the goods which cause the pollution. The water Act and the Air Act are special, Acts brought on the statute, books and constitute code, for prevention and control of water and air pollution by and trade or industry. In these Acts the breach of the provision is an offence and punishable.

Write short note on Garbage (waste product).

Garbage (Waste Product)

Garbage is a great environmental hazard. Garbage comes from wastes, kitchen wastes, vegetable refuse, used papers, tiffin packings, plastic bags, ice cream wrappers, bottle caps, pencil stubs. Garbage makes the premises ugly, unkempt breeds disease and gives the impression of very poor house-keeping.

What can we do with Garbage

Do not burn it, because

(i) it contains materials that can be recycled, such as paper, metals and glass

(ii) it contains organic matter, such as leaves which can enrich soil fertility.

(iii) burning garbage causes pollution.

Maintain a Composit Pit: In a convenient location in or around the school campus make a compost pit where all refuse of organic matter can be used for making valuable fertilizer Fallen leaves, wastes food and other organic matter can be put into the pit with thin layers of soil and occasional sprinkling of water to help decomposition. The compost is better than chemical fertilizers and can be used in the school garden.

Grow a garden and plant trees: Planting trees is one of the most important things required for improving our environment. Look at your school campus and see how it can be made greener by growing a garden and planting trees. There is much to be learned about nature by watching plants grow and observing animals life.

Trees reduce the hazards of pollution and help maintain the carbon dioxide balance of the atmosphere. Make campus greening a part of the school’s educational programme.

Write an essay on Greenhouse Effect ?

The phenomenon commonly known as greenhouse effect occurs due to emission of certain gaseous pollutants in the air which after the heating of the atmosphere, causes the average global temperature to rise. The effect produced by certain gases, such as carbon dioxide or water vapour, that cause a warming of the earth’s atmosphere by absorption of infra-red radiation. The atmosphere protects us by serving as a light scattering and heat mediating blanket. A large portion’ of heat emitted from the earth is absorbed by the atmosphere and is, in effect, conserved, with the result that the surface of the Earth is warmer than it otherwise would be. In simple words, this warming is called the greenhouse effect, by analogy with the ability of a greenhouse to keep its inside warmer than the outside during the day time.

The atmospheric concentration of these gases has relatively inccreased since the advent of the industrial era. There has emerged a growing consensus in the scientific community that the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, CFCs methane and low level ozone threatens to disrupt human societies and natural ecosystems.
The developed world accounted for nearly 80 per cent of the total industrial carbon dioxide emission of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, CFCs methane and low level ozone threatens to disrupt human societies and natural ecosystems.

The developed world accounted for nearly 80 per cent of the total industrial carbon dioxide emissions and the rest of 20 per cent originated in the developing world. On the other hands. 98 per cent CFCs are produced in developed and two per cent in developing world. With the current trend emissions a WHO study speculates that the combined effects of the six most important greenhouse gases could by the early years of 2030s commit the global warming equivalent to doubling of pre-industrial concentrations of carbon dioxide. The scientists are of the opinion that the earth will be hotter by 2 to 4 c by the middle of the 21st century.

The atmospheric blanket keeps the earth habitable and protects living forms from fatal radiations of the sun. The atmosphere intercepts solar radiation, reflecting a third of it while the rest is absorbed by the atmosphere, ocean, ice, land and biosphere. The energy absorbed balanced by the outgoing radiation from the atmosphere and the earth. This vital balance will be altered with infringement of greenhouse effect resulting an overall rise in the average global temperature.

Among the most dramatic consequences of the greenhouse climatic disruption is an unprecedented rise in global sea levels to the extent of 8 to 25.5 inches by the end of the century if gas emissions continue at the present rate Melting of polar ice and glaciers, thermal expansion of seas would cause world-wide coastal flooding and rise in sea level will result in submergence of many coastal areas. It will not only effect the ecological balance but will be a threat to the people and economy of the countries like Bangladesh, Netherlands, as well as to many coastal and island countries. In fact, the impact of world-wide climatic disruption could have hazardous consequences for the survival of the planet both biologically and economically. The Montreal Protocol was a step in this direction but an overall solution requires a combined efforts of all nations and international bodies. Apart from this, scientific and technological research in this field can also reduce the risk to a great extent, provided it reaches all nations specially to the developing nations.

Describe the thinning of ozone layer in detail ? 

Thinning of Ozone Layer: Ozone is a form of oxygen with three forms instead of the normal two and forms a fragile shield scattered in the stratosphere absorbing sun’s ultra violet radiation. Near the earth’s surface, Ozone is a an increasingly troublesome pollutant, but safely up at a height of 20 to 30 kilometres from the earth in the atmosphere, it is a important to life, as important to life as oxygen itself.

The thinning of this layer has generated global concern. This is due to several chemical pollutants discharged by industries or produced through other chemical reactions. Chiorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are inert, inexpensive, stable, non-inflammable, non-toxic, easy to store and produce. The Population explosion is one of the causes of the increase of CFCs due to use of air conditioners, insulation, solvents and fire-killers. In 1986, three US agencies, viz., National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Fedra1 Aviation Administration (FAA) started reporting on ground and satellae-based data on ozone depletion in stratosphere by the use of chemicals like halon 1301, methyl the chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, solvents-FC-1 13, aerosols, foams and refrigeration CFC- 11, and air conditioning CFC- 12 that are depleting the ozone layer 4,5,8,12 and 26 percent, respectively, on global scale, because of human activities. As for as CFC regional consumption, USA is on top consuming 29 percent, Russia and Europe 14 percent while in China and India it is merely 2 percent. The total ozone amounts in the northern hemisphere, middle and high latitudes have decreased, and sudden and unexpected decrease in the amount of spring time Antarctic zone is confirmed on 15 to 20 km in the stratosphere ozone layer.

The increase in ozone layer depletion will invite the lethal ultra violet rays from the sun which will increase cancer, eye damage, injure plants and marine life and even reduce our immunity to diseases. The UV-B damages the genetic material even reduces the efficiency of the immune system, thus impairing the body’s resistance. Experts are of the opinion that animal and plant would face a grim challenge if radiations are not checked. Certain crops have been found vulnerable to such radiations. Under impacts of radiations proteins in plants, microbes and animals would be affected and such changes in spatial orientation would be critical in the formed part of the reaction centre of an enzyme. Near cities where population concentration is more, ozone could be formed near the earth’s surface having disastrous effects on human health, crops and ecosystems. It would also increase the incidence of smog in areas of industrial concentration. Ozone has had its effect on the earth’s climate by adding to the greenhouse effects.

The world has now been serious about the most dramatic evidence of ozone depletion a “hole” in the ozone layer which appears every spring over the Antarctica. This hole has grown over the last ten years. Till now, no clear explanation has been found to explain this phenomenon scientific research in this field is in progress. But general opinion regarding the cause of this depletion is the CFC. The countries of the world now have started serious thinking about his problem. In fact, this is the duty of the developed countries, who have technology and infrastructure, to check the ozone depletion. Because this problem is not a problem of individual nations, therefore, combined efforts can only check the ozone depletion.

The concern about ozone layer protection began by the late 1 970s and early 1980s. In 1978 the United States banned the principal CFCs for most uses; in 1980 European Community countries placed a limit on production of CFCs and cut their use in aerosol products by 30 per cent. Sweden, Norway and Canada also placed limits on CFC use. In 1975 UNEP has also expressed serious concern about ozone depletion and also developed a World Plant of Action on the Ozone Layer. Some of the important international actions taken on ozone protection are listed below:

1977 UNEP Coordinating Committee on the ozone layer established.
1985 Vienna Convention of the protection of ozone layer.
1987 Motreal Protocol in substances that deplete the ozone layer.
1988 Entry into force of the Vienna Convention.
1989 Entry into force of the Motreal Protocol.
1990 Montreal Protocol amended in London. The amendment required signatory governments to regulate consumption and production of CFCs.
Jan.1991 Establishment of interim multilateral fund to provide financial assistance to developing countries in order to facilitate control meansures.
May 1992 112 states have ratified the amendment to the Montreal Protocol.
Aug. 1992 Entry into force of the amendment.
Nov. 1992 Act Copenhagen, parties agreed to accelerate, phase out schedule, to Jan.1996

Both the state and non state actors played major roles in the regime building process. To a large extent, their roles were determined by their position in the global economic systems. There is a need of greater cooperation between developed and developing nations in the field of ozone layer protection because ozone depletion involves the atmosphere, which is a common property resources.

What an essay on Global Warming ?

Global Warming

Global warming refers to gradual rise in atmospheric and ground surface air temperature and consequent change in global radiation balance caused mainly by anthropogenic processes leading to climatic change at different levels (e.g. local, regional and global). It may be pointed out that the pattern of global rise in air temperature has been studied and reported by different scientists and agencies but their results are not uniform. Radiative forcing, as defined and used by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1990), refers to the effects which green house gases have in altering the energy balance of the ‘earth-atmosphere system’ (GWP) is used as a tool to compare the relative warming effect of different gases.

It has been estimated that the overall increase in the surface air temperature over the past one hundred years has been about .05°C to 0.7°C. According to another view the average air temperature in the northern hemisphere increased by 0.4°C between 1880 and 1940 because of rapid rate of combustion of fossil fuels during this period but the temperature dropped after 1950 in spite of continued rapid rate of combustion of fossil fuels due to fast industrial growth but soon after 1940 the air temperature in the southern hemisphere showed rising trend which registered an overall increase of 0.6°C between 1940 and 1960. Another source has indicated an increase in air temperature by 1 .5°C up to 1995 while other sources have shown general air temperature rise ranging between 0.3°C and 0.6°C. It may be mentioned that rise of 2°C temperature was recorded in the Indian Ocean during 1997-1998 which caused catastrophic coral bleaching leading to 70 percent death of corals in the Andaman Nicobar and the Lakshwadeep Islands.

Various models have been developed to predict global rise in air temperature. S.H. Schneider (1950) pointed out that the temperature could rise upto 1.5°C to 3°C if the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide could be doubled from the 300 ppmv level to 600 ppmv. The general Circulation Model developed by S.Manabe and R.T. Wetherald (1975) predicts that if the present amount of carbon dioxide of the atmosphere is doubled, the temperature of the earth’s surface will increase by 2.9°C.

Write short note on Strategies for conservation of wildlife

Strategies for Conservation of Wildlife : The conservation of living organisms is concerned with plants, animals and microbes of the biosphere in such a way that it would give great benefit to the present as well as future generations of man without reducing the potential. It takes into consideration the following objectives:

(i) Maintenance of ecological equilibrium between biotic and abiotic components.

(ii) Ensuring the optimum utilization of the existing plants and animals minimizing chance of their disappearance during the course of time.
(iii) Preservation of the total gene pools of the different species in the world.

It would be appropriate to mention some of the important steps proposed by various agencies of the world to save the existing wildlife.

(i) Wile life sanctuaries and national parks should be made keeping in mind the feeding, breeding and environmental needs of species concerned.

(ii) Proper planning of land and water utilization should be done to ensure the protection of wild life in their natural habitats such as zoo and botanic gardens.

(iii) Special attention should be given to conserve the species which fall in the category of endangered, vulnerable or rare species.

(iv) Attempts should be made at national level to identify natural habitats for specific wild animals and plants.

(v) The ecosystems having endangered or vulnerable species should be given priority with regard to their protection. The use of only such species or individuals should be allowed which will not disturb the balance in the ecosystem.

(vi) The protection of wild relatives of our food crops, forage plants and domesticated animals should be given priority because they are needed for introduction of desirable characters during the breeding programmes at national and international levels.

(vii) In the introduction of species between two countries, bilateral agreements should be reached to establish required network depending upon the need of the species.

(viii) Alternative measures should be adopted to allow the survival of a species being exploited by a country or a community or an industry.

(ix) The genetic diversity of a species should be safeguarded keeping in mind the international protection progammes, e.g., MAB (Man and Biosphere) project of UNESCO, and setting up of national parks and protected areas as suggested by JUCN.