Essays and articles on general topics http://essaysandarticles.com Read essays and articles on general topics. Sun, 19 Nov 2017 16:41:04 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9 What is the relationship between Conservation and Development? http://essaysandarticles.com/what-is-the-relationship-between-conservation-and-development/ http://essaysandarticles.com/what-is-the-relationship-between-conservation-and-development/#respond Sun, 19 Nov 2017 16:41:04 +0000 http://essaysandarticles.com/?p=130 Continue reading "What is the relationship between Conservation and Development?"]]> Ecology is the science of inter-relationships between environment and the living communities including man. Environment and biotic communities are interacting units. For example, photosynthesis and the availability of sunlight has resulted in the formation of our arerobic atmosphere.

Scarcity of plants and grasses which provides as food for herbivores, cause starvation among them, In the same manner indiscriminate and unplanned hunting of herbivores leads to shortage of food for carnivores in forests. When the forest land is converted into agricultural lands, the wild animal species are either forced to emigrate or to die. Due to modification of natural environment and further accentuates the severity of man made environmental pollution.

The ultimate aim of all economic development plan and the conservation of natural resources is to improve the welfare and quality of human life. Both these aspects are correlated with each other and are inseparable. The economy of a community depends on the richness of its natural resources. The fruits of conservation of nature are obtained after hard work and
of several years whereas the gains of economic activities developmental activities of man have their impact upon natural, biotic, climatic factors, water and soil resources. Natural conservation plans should be planned on long-term basis so that they can fulfill the ever ending needs of man for a a longer period. The natural conservation approach is the most suitable as it is is scientifically sound and bears long term effects on man. The town planners while planning new towns should bear in mind the basic ecological principles that govern the functioning and stability of the ecosystem.

 

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Explain the Biodiversity protection in India? http://essaysandarticles.com/explain-the-biodiversity-protection-in-india/ http://essaysandarticles.com/explain-the-biodiversity-protection-in-india/#respond Sat, 18 Nov 2017 16:42:16 +0000 http://essaysandarticles.com/?p=102 Continue reading "Explain the Biodiversity protection in India?"]]> Biodiversity protection in India

India has much flora and fauna due to diverse climate and physical conditions, ranging from the cold desert of Ladakh and Spiti to the hot desert of Thar, the temperate forests in the Himalayas to the tropical rain forests of low lands. There are also present large inland fresh water lakes like Wular and Man Sarovar in Kashmir, the Chilka in Orissa, the Kollerulake in Andhra Pradesh and the rugged and rich coastline and coral reefs of Deccan.

In India, a number of steps have been taken for the benefit of wild life. The Indian Board of Wild life (IBWL) was established in 1952 to look after the country’s wild life. Since 1995, Wild Life Week is observed every year to educate the people about the importance of Wild Life Protection Act 1972. The killing, capturing and trading of rare and endangered species has been banned under this Act. National Parks and sanctuaries can be set up under third act for the preservation of wild life. This act has been adopted by all the states except Janimu and Kashmir, which has its own similar Act. The National Wild Life Action Plan of 1983-84 requires rehabilitation of endangered species by captive breeding. creation of Biosphere Reserves has also been put into practice since 1986. Botanical Survey of India (BSI) and Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) also have wild life protection programmes. Certain societies like. The Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) and Wild Life Preservation Society of India (WPSI) are also doing useful work for the conservation of wild life.

 

Objectives of Conservation of Biodiversity

Conservation of biological diversity has three specific objectives
(i) To maintain essential ecological processes and life supporting systems : air, water and soil.
(ii) To preserve the diversity of species or the range of genetic material found in the world’s organisms.
(iii) To ensure continuous use of species and ecosystems, which support rural communities and major industries.

Thus, the conservation of living resources is concerned not only with the plants, animals and micro-organisms but also with the abiotic components of the environment which support them.

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Explain the Conservation of National Resources? What do you mean by water conservation ? http://essaysandarticles.com/explain-the-conservation-of-national-resources-what-do-you-mean-by-water-conservation/ http://essaysandarticles.com/explain-the-conservation-of-national-resources-what-do-you-mean-by-water-conservation/#respond Sat, 18 Nov 2017 15:55:16 +0000 http://essaysandarticles.com/?p=105 Continue reading "Explain the Conservation of National Resources? What do you mean by water conservation ?"]]>  

Conservation of National Resources

Man is the greatest enemy of environment, as he has the ability to modify it. With increase in its population, there is a need to develop the new areas on the earth which has not been utilized previously. There is need to increase the production of the old areas. Water, air and soil resources are to be protected from adverse effects of pollution caused by wastes and other industrial products. The physical and biological environments, control man and other animals. To improve his standard of living, improvement of the environment is essential. Environmental conservation is a continuous process which is essential to maintain our living standard.

Conservation is the protection, preservation and use of the natural resources of the earth. The term natural resources means all land, minerals, waters, vegetation and wildlife useful to human society. Conservation of natural resources means control and management of land and its minerals, soil, water, vegetation, etc. It is also applied ecology. The important natural resources which need conservation are land, water, minerals and soil.

Since man began to realize the consequences of unlimited exploitation of the nature by him, all the efforts are being made to study the environmental problems on global level. The ecologists consider whole of the biosphere as a workable ecosystem and man constitutes an important component as well as factor in it. In order to meet his increasing demand of food, shelther, energy, etc. he has started exploiting indiscriminately his natural resources at a very rapid rate, thus causing ecological imbalance of the nature. With the rapid increase in human population, man has to understand ecological potential of his environment Realizing the need of evaluating the biotic potential of different kinds of habitats of biosphere, two very important Programmes have been launched on global level (i) International Biological programme (IBP) (ii) Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB).

 Water conservation in India

Though water renews itself through hydrological cycles, still an increasing demand for water needs its conservation. Following measures can be adopted for this purpose.

1. Treatment of used water before passing it into irrigational channels
2. Prevention of wastage of water in irrigation by brick lining of channels and subsurface and sprinkler techniques.
3. Prevention of water wastage in industries and homes.
4. Prevention of water pollution by not allowing raw sewage and industrial effluents to pass into water bodies.
5. Building of dams upstreams to store flood water for use during dry periods.
6. Afforestation and reforestation of hill slopes and catchment areas to hold water and prevent its loss through floods.
7. Building of tanks and ponds to retain rain water for later use in areas, where perennial sources of water are not available.

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Explain the Modes of Conservation ? http://essaysandarticles.com/explain-the-modes-of-conservation/ http://essaysandarticles.com/explain-the-modes-of-conservation/#respond Sat, 18 Nov 2017 15:42:16 +0000 http://essaysandarticles.com/?p=103 Continue reading "Explain the Modes of Conservation ?"]]> Modes of Conservation

1. Protection of Law : It is very necessary that stringent laws are passed now and enforced very strictly. There will be always the case of the law breakers. The defect about this method is that under legal protection some animals alone will become plentiful and become a nuisance. Again this is a less effective method as when the laws are enforced some people may stealthily hunt the protected animals and earn huge profits and thereby nullify the very purpose of the law.

2. Establishment of Sanctuaries and Refuges : After the establishment of the Indian Board for wild life in 1952 many sanctuaries and refuges have been set up. Most of the sanctuaries have ideal conditions for the animals to live. However, a constant watch must be kept on the numbers so that overpopulation is not allowed.

3. Restoration of the Original Habitat: This is a case of rectifying the mistakes committed earlier. If for example a lake was drained for fields it can be reformed. Similarly, forests that, are denuded can again be restored by reforestation. The main aim of Vanamahotsava is towards reforestation and increase of plant wealth. A polluted river can be made alright by treating the effluents with chemicals. Roads and railways can be avoided through dense forests.

4. Better Living Conditions:
(a) Provision of cover :
Animals can be encouraged to live in any
by providing cover in the form of shrubs and trees. Even grasslands
can be converted into ideal places for wild animals if trees and shrubs are planted in between in long rows. In Europe often hedges are used as farm
strips of plant life are left along margins of fields to enable animals to move to their places of food and water and food

(b) Provision of food : In the reforestation programme those trees and
plants should be planted in abundance which form food for the wild animals by those in authority.

5. Raising for Fur and Game animals: Many of the fur bearers threatened with epidemics. In that case it is necessary to isolate the animals and rear them in protected areas for subsequent release in their original habitats.

6. Educating the Common Man : All the efforts of the Government and private agencies will fail if the common man is not educated regarding the preservation of wild life. There must he more books available on wild life so that even children can know about them people must be encouraged to visit sanctuaries and spend days there. Arrangements must be made to create interest among the common man so that the learns more about the wild life. This is the most important method of preservation.

In India there is a greater need of scientific conservation today than before. Among all the measures for conservation the most important method of conservation is habitat improvement.

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Write an essay on Man’s Disruption of Ecosystem and Conservation of environment. http://essaysandarticles.com/write-an-essay-on-mans-disruption-of-ecosystem-and-conservation-of-environment/ http://essaysandarticles.com/write-an-essay-on-mans-disruption-of-ecosystem-and-conservation-of-environment/#respond Fri, 17 Nov 2017 18:42:15 +0000 http://essaysandarticles.com/?p=101 Continue reading "Write an essay on Man’s Disruption of Ecosystem and Conservation of environment."]]> Man’s Disruption of Ecosystem

Man has done much to alter the face of earth. Almost in all the countries the sprawling cities, the broad highways, the highly cultivated farmlands, the big factories and the great areas of land made unproductive through mismanagement, all combine to produce a disruption of natural ecosystem. Great achievements in industrialization, transportation, mechanized agriculture, public health and medicines have aided in uplifting the standard of living far above than ever known before, but these advances have been bought at a price.

In achieving all these comforts, man has created several problems, by disturbing the delicate ecological balance in nature. The web of life is so delicately inter-woven that we cannot alter any part without far reaching consequences. For example, the poisons and insecticides are used to kill the insects which the birds eat, but these insecticides also kill those birds that we do not wish to kill. The forests cleared for the construction of factories, dams or railway tract also cause grave danger to the wildlife. The industrial wastes as chemical effluents, gases, smog etc. pollute the water and air, killing numerous freshwater and marine organisms (fishes, oysters and green vegetation) valuable to man in various ways.
In early times man formed only a small part of the ecosystem exchanging material with it just like other animals. By learning to hunt, to grow crops he gained superiority over other species in his environment. The explosive increase in his population accompanied with an expanding knowledge in every field made him the ruler of the earth. By creating artificial environment and providing modern comforts man has combated with nature. But all this has disturbed the ecological balance to such an extent that ecologists have started predicting that if man continues to disrupt his environment at the same speed, he will bring the dooms day of his race very soon. Now he mu use his intellect to preserve the ecosystem and the natural balance, which are very necessary for his survival.
The conservation of environment, and natural resources by the application of ecological principles is very essential in ensuring a continual yield of plants, animals and materials for fast expanding human population Man has been squandering natural resources by improper cultivation of land wasteful lumbering methods, unrestricted slaughter or animals, depletion fisheries and industrial and sewage pollution of water resources.

A new method has been evolved by the experts of the Dehradoon based Central Soil and Water Conservation Research Institute at it Bellary
Research Centre involves digging of ditches of suitable sizes to break flow of run-off water. Conservation ditching, as the new technique is called helps in preserving, a major portions of the run-off water for utilization during the dry period for irrigating field crops. By cutting off the flow of water from a rain storm, these ditches help in preventing effectively the erosion of down stream soil.

Major Advantage: One of the major advantage of the new conservation system is that it offers scope for boosting farm production in rain fed areas of black cotton soils by providing supplementary irrigation. The practice can be adopted even at the individual farm level. In an experiment at the Bellary Centre, the results indicated that the yield of sorghum (jowar) could be increased by nearly 47 percent by just providing one irrigation to the crop from water stored in the ditches.

Experiments have also been conducted at Dehradoon to ascertain the viability of water harvesting technology involving storage of excess rain water in ponds and utilizing it for providing supplementary irrigation to rainfed crops. It has been found that about 40 percent of the storage capacity of the ponds constructed in the fields is generally lost due to seepage and evaporation. The remaining 60% of the available water can be successfully used for providing life saving irrigation to rail crops.
Conservation of Natural Resources: The natural resources means the land, soil, minerals, waters and their products; the vegetation, and wild life which are useful for human society and maintenance of modern comforts .Conservation of these resources by the application of ecological principles is very essential in ensuring a continuous yield of plants and animals used as food and other materials which are essential for the expanding human population. Therefore, conservation is nothing but applied ecology.

1. Soil conservation: Soil is the top cover of the earth in which plants an grow. The plant life is very essential for conserving kinetic solar energy into potential energy and forms the only source for providing energy to the animals. These supply fodder for animals, food and clothing to man and shelter to all. Its wood is put to various uses. It is, therefore, essential to protect the soil against soil erosion, floods and to conserve its fertility. The rotation of crop, contour ploughing and use of proper fertilizers help in maintaining the fertility of soil. Plantation of trees, controlled grazing of islands, reforestation, prevention of forest fires will protect the erosion of top soil. The regulation of water resources to prevent flood will help not only soil conservation but also supply an adequate water supply in the period of drought.

2. Water Conservation : Soil conservation alone will prove inadequate is not accompanied by the maintenance of suitable quantities of water. r is needed for our domestic, agricultural and industrial uses. With an increase of our industrial civilization our need for water has increased. If our water resources are polluted, or stored water runs short, the very existence of the entire civilized world is threatened.

The Construction of artificial reservoirs, lakes and canals enable us to spread  water to suitable lands where it could be used. The mismanagement of stored water may lead to soil erosion, may fill reservoirs, run canals and dams and may cause overflow of the river
hanks ruining the farms.

 

3. Environmental Conservation: Life and environment are inseparable. Man is an integral part of the environment exchanging materials with the environment in a continuous cycle. With his modern knowledge in technology, chemistry, and biology and agriculture man has the ability to modify his environment, but still he cannot completely isolate himself. As his population increases, he needs more space and to utilize resources from other place, which he had not exploited earlier. It must, therefore, be realized that man should try to conserve his environment in which he is residing and should use his environment in an intelligent way so that the human race is not exposed to environmental hazards.

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Explain the terms bio-diversity, biome and biosphere? http://essaysandarticles.com/explain-the-terms-bio-diversity-biome-and-biosphere/ http://essaysandarticles.com/explain-the-terms-bio-diversity-biome-and-biosphere/#respond Fri, 17 Nov 2017 15:42:11 +0000 http://essaysandarticles.com/?p=99 Continue reading "Explain the terms bio-diversity, biome and biosphere?"]]> Bio-diversity

Bio-diversity is the number of species of different organisms present in an area. Bio-diversity includes all plants, animals and mircro-organisms of an area. Earth is endowed with an immensely rich variety of life forms which roughly consist of 3,00,000 green plants, 8,00,000 insects, 23,000 fishers, 2,000 birds, 6,500 reptiles, 4,100 animals and few thousand microbes.

Thus, Bio-diversity means variation and abundance of species and their habitats According to the World Resources Institute, ‘Bio-diversity’ is variety of the world’s organisms including their genetic diversity and the assemblage they form. It is the blanket term for natural biological wealth that underguards human life and well-being.

India is recognized as a country uniquely rich in Bio-diversity, because of its tropical location, varied physical features and climate. It consist of approximately 850 bacteria, 23,000 fungi, 25,000 algae 1,600 lichens, 2,664 bryophytes, 1,022 pteridophytes, 64 gymnosperms, 15,000 angiospernis, 53,430 insects, 5050 molluscs, 2,546 fishes, 204 amphibians, 456 reptiles, 1228 ayes and 372 Mammals.

Biome

The natural ecological grouping of plants and animals on the basis of climates are called biomes. In other words, all the ecosystems taken together in a given geographical area having the same type of climate is called a biome. The examples of biomes are : deserts, grasslands, tropical forests, temperate forests, etc.  A biome is a very large ecosystem having the same type of climate, ie type of plants and animals throughout. So, biomes are also termed as ecosystems of the world.

Biosphere

A zone consisting of land, water and air, where life exists is called a biosphere. It includes all the living organisms of the Earth and all the life supporting regions of the Earth. Thus, the biosphere consists of four parts, Lithosphere (Land surface or soil); Hydrosphere (Water bodies) Atmosphere (Air) and Living organisms (like animals and plants).

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Explain biotic community and community structure?? http://essaysandarticles.com/explain-biotic-community-and-community-structure/ http://essaysandarticles.com/explain-biotic-community-and-community-structure/#respond Thu, 16 Nov 2017 18:42:09 +0000 http://essaysandarticles.com/?p=98 Continue reading "Explain biotic community and community structure??"]]> Biotic Community

A biotic community is a localized association of several populations of different species living in a given geographic area or habitat. It is a heterogeneous collection of different groups of organisms both plants and animals present in that area. The biotic community is, therefore, composed of smaller units of intimately associated members which belong to different species. Each unit is known as population which may be defined as having the same given biotic area.

A biotic community exhibits adaptive radiation because the organisms of different populations have some features in common due to the effect of the same abiotic factors of the environment. The abiotic factors include the temperature, light and other radiations, water, gravity, pressure, hydrogen concentration, soil texture, chemicals in solution, air-currents, water currents, atmospheric gases etc.

The biotic environment i.e. the plants and animals present in thai particular area also influence the density of a particular group of population the abundance of organisms of a particular group). Thus in nature there exists an interaction between organisms and environment, between plants and plants, between animals and animals and between animals and plants and the biotic community is the net result of all such interactions.

Community Structure

Community consists of mainly three groups, which are the fundamental units of an ecosystem:

1. Producers : Producers include autotrophic organisms i.e. the green plants which synthesize their food. These are of two types (i) Posted or large floating plants and (ii) minute floating plants (phytoplankton). These are in abundance in a community.

2. Decomposers : These are also living components of the community. Mostly these are composed of micro-organisms such as bacteria and fungi. These act on the dead bodies of producers and consumers and are responsible, for breaking up complex materials into simple substances. The released usable nutrient material goes back into the system for reuse by the producers.

3. Consumers : These include the heterotrophic organisms which consumer the food produced by the producers. On the basis of feeding habits consumers are subdivided into 2 subgroups
(i) Herbivores or primary consumers: These depend upon vegetation and form the food for secondary consumers.
(ii) Carnivores or secondary consumers : These depends on the primary consumers e.g. rabbit which is a herbivore forms the food of wolves. Primary carnivores or secondary consumers (wolves) in turn form the food lion (secondary carnivore). This constitutes the food chain.

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Explain the Biodiversity ? What are the importance of Biodiversity? http://essaysandarticles.com/explain-the-biodiversity-what-are-the-importance-of-biodiversity/ http://essaysandarticles.com/explain-the-biodiversity-what-are-the-importance-of-biodiversity/#respond Thu, 16 Nov 2017 15:42:06 +0000 http://essaysandarticles.com/?p=97 Continue reading "Explain the Biodiversity ? What are the importance of Biodiversity?"]]> The term biodiversity describes all aspects of diversity, i.e. richness of species within a specified region or the world; the complexity of ecosystems and genetic diversity. The boundless diversity in the living organisms is the most distinguished characteristic of life. The term biological diversity or biodiversity refers to the extent of variation of living organisms on earth. It is total living component of the biosphere. Thus, biodiversity means variety and variability of all animals, plants and micro-organisms Organisms look different from each other because of differences, in their genes. Hence, biodiversity stands for diversity in the genetic makeup of living organisms. So we can observe biodiversity at following three levels: species level, genetic level and ecosystem level. For the sustenance of humankind, conservation of diversity is very important. All the components of nature exist in perfect harmony. These are interwoven and interdependent. A disturbance to one type of fauna and flora can threaten the whole life support system.

Human beings are also a part of this complex system. So, the loss of diversity can lead to the destruction of human species as well. Indeed every species in nature is not only exerting a biological control over the other, but are supporting and co-operating with each other directly or indirectly.

Due to its great diversity of plant life, especially the angiosperms, India belongs to the category of 12 mega diversity countries of the world. From angiosperms new drugs are being discovered every day. Besides angiosperms, India is equally rich in species of insects, amphibian, reptiles, birds and mammals of great economic potential.

India’s long established diversity is now under serious threat due to various factors. We can consider only one major factor here. The unchecked growth in human population has created need for more food and shelter. This led to monoculture cropping system, industrialization and urbanization at the cost of wild habitat. It is anticipated that a quarter of earth’s diversity will be endangered in the next 20-30 years. Therefore, the requirement of conservation of biodiversity is more urgent now. In this direction, best step would be to educate the public and make people to realize the seriousness of the problems. Another immediate step should include the creation of more and more protected areas such as national parks, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves.

Besides above conventional methods of conservation of biodiversity, the new field of biotechnology has provided some long-term methods for conserving the fast depleting diversity. The diversity is preserved in the form of germplasm (genetic material). Germplasm or gene banks are established for the conservation of species. Such gene banks exist in the form of botanical gradens, zoological parks, culture collection, seeds, pollen grains and vegetatively propagated parts (such as corm, bulb, tubers) are collected and stored in such germplasm or seed banks under very specialized conditions (Cold storage, cryogenic storage). Some of these collections are kept dry.

Importance of Biodiversity

A rich bio-diversity is essential for the health of biosphere and bioindustrial development of a country. The main importance of biodiversity is discussed below.

1. Gene Banks: Improved varieties of crop plant and domestic animals are the backbone of modern agriculture. In recent years, many improved varieties of crops and useful animals have been developed from their wild relatives through breeding programmes. Wild life serves as a gene pool which may be tapped for improving yield and resistance. Animal breeders select useful genes by screening a wide range of their wild relatives. A few years back a new rice pest called brown plant hopper (Nilaparvata lugens) threatened the entire rice cultivation, because all the high yielding varieties were susceptible to t. In a world wise search, only a few old rice varieties from Kerala were found to have resistance to this pest. The resistance gene from these varieties have been introduced into the modern rice variety. This indicates the need for conserving’ biodiversity for breeding programmes.

2. Means of Recreation: Bio-diversity provides a good deal of fun and recreation. A visit to a sanctuary or national park is a thrilling experience.

3. Scientific value : New surgical methods or efficiency of new medicines are tested first on animals like rats, gunia pigs, rhesus monkey etc.

4. Aesthetic Value: Bio-diversity provides aesthetic value to man. A world without thick forests, graceful beasts and melodious birds would be a
poorer place for man to live in.

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What do you mean by Plant Succession ? What are the causes of succession ? Write the type of plant Succession. http://essaysandarticles.com/what-do-you-mean-by-plant-succession-what-are-the-causes-of-succession-write-the-type-of-plant-succession/ http://essaysandarticles.com/what-do-you-mean-by-plant-succession-what-are-the-causes-of-succession-write-the-type-of-plant-succession/#respond Thu, 16 Nov 2017 15:12:48 +0000 http://essaysandarticles.com/?p=68 Continue reading "What do you mean by Plant Succession ? What are the causes of succession ? Write the type of plant Succession."]]> Plant Succession: If any place do without plants and do separate from man and animals pet by man then slowly but after definite time there will start planting. After long period of time will come as such that stable community will be there. At anyone place slowly the set of plant community called plant succession.

Reason of Succession : Generally the form of succession are due to water, land-shape and biotic reason. Due to cutting of trees and grazing of the animals the greenness is destroyed and it is the cause of plant Succession.

Type of Succession : Mostly the successions are of type : (i) Primary Succession and (ii) Secondary Succession.

(i) Primary Succession : Becoming without greenness place the succession is called primary succession. The ash, coming out from rocks and volcano can be kept in this category.

(ii) Secondary Succession : As such area where the greenness was destroyed due to any reason but now it is start again called secondary succession. Floods, fire and cutting of trees are this type of succession.

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Write a short note on: Ecotypes. 2. Ecological Equivalents. http://essaysandarticles.com/write-a-short-note-on-ecotypes-2-ecological-equivalents/ http://essaysandarticles.com/write-a-short-note-on-ecotypes-2-ecological-equivalents/#respond Wed, 15 Nov 2017 14:20:33 +0000 http://essaysandarticles.com/?p=76 Continue reading "Write a short note on: Ecotypes. 2. Ecological Equivalents."]]> A) Ecotypes : Most species of plants and animals in nature are composed of a great many hiotypes, that is types of individuals that grow and react differently because of different genetic constitutions. Owing to varying environmental conditions certain biotype groups become established in different ecological regions of the range of each species these ecological subdivisions of the species are known as ecotypes, and are genetically different races. Each ecotype is the result of selection by its environment and has become especially adapted for a particular set of conditions. This wide ranging species are represented in different parts of their ranges by different ecotypes.

A small population of an ecotype particularly if it is isolated, will tend to become less variable genetically because of inbreeding and will contain fewer biotypes. With less adaptability the population will be less likely to survive bad conditions. In contract a larger population with more biotypes is more likely to include some individuals that can withstand adverse circumstances and that can take advantage of new variations in the environment. These relations probably account for the fact that certain reduced populations with fewer ecotypes fail to spread widely, although environmental conditions appear favourable.

B) Ecological Equivalents : Different species of organisms living under similar environmental conditions in different geographical regions are known as ecological equivalents.

Examples:

1. The mountain goat, Oreamanos Americans, found at high altitudes in mountain areas of North America occupies the same niche, on the basis of its habitat, food and relationship to other organisms as does the Ibex (Capra Ibes) which at one time was common in the Alps of Southern Europe.

2. The mountain lion of North America feeds on deer whereas the African lion feeds on antelopes and wild beasts.

3. Consumers : Herbivores such as grazing mammals (e.g. cows, sheep, deer, rabbit, buffaloes, etc.), insects (e.g. Dysdercus, cocinella, Leptocorisa etc.) some termites and millipedes are the Primary consumers.

The animals like fox, jackals, snakes, frogs, lizards, birds etc. are the carnivores feeding on herbivores. These are the secondary consumers of the grassland ecosystem. Hawks occupy the tertiary trophic level as these teed on the secondary consumers.

4. Primary producers : These are mainly grasses of the family Graminae, a large variety of Forbs, some shrubs and scattered trees.

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