Explain about Chipko Andolan and different forestery programmes ?

Chipko Andolan

The beginning of the revolutionary step as movement for conservation of forest began in 1972 at Tihari Garhwal in Uttar Pradesh (now in Uttaranchal) which is called Chipko Andolan (movement). The inspirer of Chipko. Andolan was Sunder Lal Bahuguna. When thc forests were cut down indiscriminately at Garhwal then women of Garhwal district decided that one woman should cling to one tree if some one tries to cut it. As such, when labourers came with axe to cut trees, they did not dare to cut the trees.

Such first public revolution had started much early in 1971 at Khejarli village in Marwar (Jodhpur). The then Maharaja of Jodhpur had ordered to cut down trees for fuel wood. Against this a resolution started under the leadership of courageous and fearless lady Amrita Devi. 363 members of Vishnoi caste clung to Khejdi trees. All of them were cut down along with the wood of the trees. This event sparked the movement for conservation of trees and forests.

The main aims of Chipko Andolan were as follows:
(1) To plant trees of environmental importance more in comparison to trees of business importance.
(2) To develop social and agricultural forestry
(3) To oppose the construction of big dams to keep a balance in ecosystem.
(4) To grow fruit bearing plants for economic importance.

Forestry Programmes

(A) Social Forestry Programme: This programme was started in 1976. To preserve the land and water in present time to save the forest in this programme, the grass, fuel and other bushes are planting by villages. In this programme multi-purpose trees plant and do its preservation.

(B) Agro Forestry Programme: Its objective was to alive the ancient agricultural system. It was told to the farmers that in fertile land, how they can keep continue the planting and husbandary in same land.

(C) Urban Forestry Programme: The objective of this programme was to plant the flower trees for beauty in town and cities. As such trees may be plant in public parks, both side of roads and on personal land.

Discuss the national forest policy of development programme of India?

National Forest Policy: During the early years of the British rule, when conditions were unsettled, Reckless destruction of forests went on unchecked. The East India Co. was more interested n immediate gains than in a long-term benefits to the country. With the transfer of authority in 1857 from the East India Co. to the British Crown, however, there was a welcome change of emphasis from immediate gains to long term benefits. The rapidly shrinking supplies of timber and fire-wood and the extensive soil erosion which followed deforestation compelled the Government to pay some attention to the urgent need for the preservation of forest wealth. Therefore, a forest policy had to be evolved. The first Inspector General of Forests was appointed in 1863 and in 1894 a Resolution on forest policy was issued. This Resolution said that: (i) forests should be managed to promote general well being of the country (ii) they should be maintained for the preservation of climatic and physical conditions of the country and (iii) to supply and fulfill the needs of the people for fuel and industries. This policy related to state forests in British provinces and forests were divided into : (a) forests, the preservation of which was essential on climatic or physical grounds; (b) forests that afforded a supply of valuable timber for commercial purposes; (c) minor forest: and (d) pasture lands.

Under the Indian Forest Act of 1927, three categories of forests were recognized- Reserved forests (the most strictly controlled). Protected forests (less strictly controlled), and Unclassed forests (which include ‘village forests’ or land classed as ‘culturable waste’).

Since the first systematic Forest Policy was declared, changes of far reaching importance had taken place in the economic field. Most important of these were:

(i) A substantial increase in human and bovine population which led to a heavier pressure on forest demanding more land for agriculture and pastures.
(ii) A heavy dependence on forest resources during the two world wars which led to rapid depletion of these resources.
(iii) Independent India launched reconstruction schemes such as the river projects, agricultural colonization schemes, development of forest based industries, and laying down of new railway lines all leaned very heavily on the forest products, and lastly.
(iv) Forest began to be regarded as the foster mother and not as the hand-maid of  agriculture.

Forest Development Programmes

For soil and water conservation and satisfaction of the present and prospective demand of the people for fuel wood and of the industries for industrial woods and other raw materials forest development has been regarded as a sine quo non for economic progress of the country. With this aim in view, the improvement of the existing forests received attention in the Five-Year Plans. The first two Plans put considerable emphasis on their consolidation, improvement of degraded forests, establishment of economic plantations of fast growing trees and improvement of communications.

Vana Mahaotsava was inaugurated in 1950 to create an enthusiasm in the popular mind for the preservation of forests and planting of new trees, as “trees means water, water means bread and bread is life. ‘ It was also hoped that it would create tree-consciousness among the people. The planting of trees during Vanmahotsava was to serve the following purposes:

(i) To provide fuel and thus release cow dung for use as manure.
(ii) To increase production of fruits and add to the potential food resources of the country;
(iii) To help creation of shelter-belts around agricultural fields, to increase their productivity;
(iv) To provide fodder leaves for cattle to relieve intensity of grazing over reserved forests.

The Third Plan emphasized the protective as well as the productive role of forests in the Indian economy and suggested a long term objective that a third of the land area should be under forests.

The Fourth Plan envisaged a high increase in the demand for various forest products both for industrial and for fuel purposes. During the Fourth plan in the sector of forestry three main objectives were to be achieved (a) to increase the productivity of forests (b) to link up forests development with various forests-based industries; and (c) to develop forests as a support to rural economy. Intensive exploitation and rational utilization of existing forest resources was aimed at.

The primary objective of the Draft Fifth Plan is: (i) To initiate measures for increasing production of Industrial wood and other forest products by a change over from conservation oriented forestry to a dynamic programme of production forestry, aiming at clear felling and creating large man made forests with the help of institutional fmancing. The produce from clear felled areas is to be used in wood-based industries by locating additional units wherever required; (ii) To develop farm forestry and improvements of degraded forests to increase the fuel and timber supply in the rural areas, (iii) To assess the present growing stocks, increments and potential increments by forest divisions, natural regions and timber slates, along with a proper information system on the forest working plans and working schemes.

During the Sixth Plan Period the Forest Conservation Act 1980 was enacted with the main objective of checking the diversion of forest land for non-forestry purposes.

The rule and importance of forests in the general economic development of the country in terms of protection of the ecosystem and supply of various forest products is better understood now the task bringing one third of the geographical area of the country under tree cover becomes a vital need and all possible efforts have to made to achieve this target by the end of this century.

Establishment of National Wasteland Development Boards, reconstitution of the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education and application of remote sensing in forestry management are the new thrust areas for the Seventh Year Plan regarding the development of forest wealth in the country and to develop the research and education.

Explain the main causes of low productivity of forests?

The main causes of low productivity of forests are:

(i) Large area of unclassed State forests and the former private forests, acquired by the Government after the abolition of zamindari, are undermocked and required to be rehabilitated. The difficulty in organizing the Commercial exploitation of these products arise from their erratic distribution. Some products like Ephedra, Ratanjot and Kuth occur at high elevations. Myrobolans are usually dispersed over extensive areas rendering the cost of collection prohibitive. Herbs suffer from the same handicap.

(ii) Customary forest rights and concessions granted to the tribals and forest people for free grazing of their cattle in the forests and removing Umber, fuel and manure and minor forest produce have been very liberally exercised by them for a long time and this has led to the reduction of forest yield.

(iv) The large animal population reduces the possibility of efficient forest management, preservation and expansion through afforestation.

(v) Some of the forests (about 43 percent) have not yet been opened up sufficiently and therefore, only the most valuable trees can be extracted economically, others go to waste. Besides very few types in Indian forests are gregarious to enable their economical exploitation.

(vi) An appreciable proportion of trees are malformed or consist of species which are slow growing and poor yielders.

(vii) Antiquated transport and lack of proper bridle paths-rope ways and the road system in the forest areas are other bottlenecks in the full utilization of resources.

(viii) The methods of felling, fashioning and slow means of transportation entail much wastage and the costs are also high.

(ix) Large quantities of inferior woods which could be put to economic use through seasoning and preservation treatment remain only partially utilized.

(x) These are no commercial forests and most of the forests are meant for protective purposes. Reserved forests represent 48 percent : Protected forests 32 percent and unclassified forests are forests in name only.

(xi) The yield from forests is low because static conservancy (or natural growth of forests) is even now practised. This has its importance when scientific management had just begun. But now it is not suitable.

(xii) There are over one million hectares of over-aged inaccessible forests in H.P. and UP. in remote areas which are deteriorating and await immediate exploitation. The stands in these forest areas are good and valuable, they need good management practices.

(xiii) Many species of wood possess such defects as excessive sharpness, heaviness, twisted grains, brittleness, presence of oils or abrasive materials, poor seasoning ability and impregnation qualities which have rendered them economically useless.

(xiv) Lastly, inadequate protection against fire, plant diseases, insects, lack of complete information regarding timber supplies and other forest resources, inadequate research facilities and insufficiency of trained personnel are other factors which militate against full production.

Write short note on the following: (a) Non-renewable resources. (b) Renewable resources.

(a) Non-renewable resources : Minerals are the important rich source of energy. But their distribution is uneven. In some places, they may be found in abundance whereas at other place, it may be in very less quantity. For examples, molybdenum it found in abundances in North America and very scarcely in Asia. Asia is rich in tin, tungsten and manganese but these metals are poorly found in North America. World’s most precious metal, gold and platinum are found in large quantity in South Africa, but is poor in silver. The reason for such an uneven distribution of these metals is unknown. About 200 metals are widely and extensively used in various industries and are a rich source of our economics. This has resulted in forcing a new mineral cycle in the environment, which includes (a) mineral extraction (b) convention of minerals into large quantities of metals, ceramics and chemicals (c) manufacture of medicines, pesticides, fertilizers, utensils and other public. utility goods (d) their return back to the environment. At every stage of this mineral cycle energy is consumed, however, this mineral cycle has resulted in progressive deterioration of aquatic, terrestrial and atmospheric environment and this poses a question mark on the future of human civilization and health.

(b) Renewable Resources : Renewable resources of energy are those energy which can be regenerated naturally or artificially. Organic waste products either discharged as municipal wastes or from any other sources conserve very high quantity of fossil fuels. This can be utilized in producing chemicals and energy. Vegetation biomass has negligible sulphur contents, hence it is better than the fuel. Coal has high contents of sulphur but its ash can be used as fertilizer.

Water: Water is the chief resources which is very valuable and indispensable to life. No life can exist without water, which is a renewable resource. Water is a universal solvent for all the atmospheric gases and several liquid and solid substances. Rain water is considered as the purest form of water. But due to considerable abuse and misuse, it no longer could be considered pure, as on entering atmosphere of earth, it absorbs several pollutants, from air and on reaching earth, mixes with those pollutants which seep through the ground. Bicarbonates, sulphates and chlorides of sodium, calcium and magnesium get dissolved in the water and are responsible for causing hardness of water.

Explain the Conversation of Natural Resources and Concurrent Environmental Issues?

Concurrent Environmental Issues

Human being has started utilization resources at large scale with scientific progress an technological development. This create the great problem and man itself make his life insecure. An organization, World Awareness Organization which provides guidelines of future on the basis of economic progress, based on natural resources, published its world position report 1944. According to this report, the natural resources are utilized by man at large scale, if the uncontrolled utilization of natural resources is not controlled, it leads to natural imbalance and life become insecure completely.

Environmental pollution is great problem and it needs maximum attention. For this purpose almost government of all countries are aware about it and has started various programmes, organize resources and hence to control environmental pollution.

In India various sentiments are associated with few plants and animals since ancient time; it helps in the conservation and protection of these species.

Conservation of Natural Resource : The management for the benefit of all life including human kind of the biosphere so that it may yield sustainable benefit to meet the needs and  aspirations of the future generation is known as conservation of resources.

What is Natural Resources? Classify the Natural Resources ?

Natural Resource: “Natural” means an ecosystem not influenced by man and resources means that reserve stock of supply which living things can take from nature for sustenance of life. In reference to man, natural resources can be defined as those natural reserve stocks of supply which man utilizes for his sustenance and welfare. The reservoirs of natural resources are the sun, the atmosphere, the lithosphere and the hydrosphere. Natural resources include energy, air, water, soil, minerals, plants and animals. The nature of resource depends upon many factors such as scientific and technological development of the society, profession of that particular society and culture.

(i) A substance present in the nature but not utilized is not a natural resource.

(ii) A substance becomes a resource when it is being utilized. For example, once uranium was not a natural resource. After the discovery of nuclear energy and development of nuclear reactor plants, it has become an important natural resource today.

(iii) Natural resources, whether replevisable or non-replevisable are finite.

(iv) It is possible that a substance is a resource for a particular society, country or continent but is not a resource for the others. For example, one tribal society of the Andaman group of islands does not use uranium, gold or silver at all. So these elements are not resources for them. On the other hand they are important natural resources for societies all over the world.

Classification of the Natural Resources or the main types of Natural Resources

Natural ‘resources are classified in different ways i.e. on the basis of chemical composition, availability and distribution.

(A) Natural resources are of three types on the basis of their chemical composition.
(1) Inorganic Resources. e.g. air, water and minerals
(2) Organic Resources. e.g. Plants, animals micro-organisms and fossil fuels.
(3) Mixture of Inorganic and Organic Resources. e.g. soil

(B) Natural resources are of two types depending upon their availability and abundance.
1. Inexhaustible Resources : They are not likely to be exhausted by man’s use e.g. air, clay, sand, tidal energy etc. Although the air is available in exhaustible quantity, it can be diminished or degraded, if its pollution is not checked.
2. Exhaustible Resources : They are likely to be exhausted by human use. They are further of two types — renewable and non-renewable.

(a) Renewable resources: They have inherent capacity to reappears or replenish themselves by quick recycling, reproduction and replacement within a reasonable time. Soil, water and living organisms are the main renewable resources.

(b) Non-Renewable resources: They lack the ability for recycling and replacement. The substances with a very long recycling time are also regarded as non renewable resources e.g. fossil fuels like coal, petroleum and natural gas and minerals.

It is important to note that underground water, forests and wild life are regarded as renewable resources but become non-renewable, if they are not used properly.

(C) Natural resources are of three types on the basis of their distribution:

  1. National Resources : They are confined to national boundaries e.g. lands, minerals.
  2. Multinational Resources : They are shared by more than one nations e.g. some rivers (such as Brahmputra is shared by Nepal, India and Bangladesh), migratory birds (such as Siberian cranes).
  3. International Resources: They are shared by all the nations e.g. air, solar energy.

Explain the Declaration on the Human Environment ?

The Human Conference on the Human environment held at Stockholm from 5th June to 16 June, 1972 may rightly be reckoned as the first major attempt to solve the global problems of conservation and regulation of human environment by international agreement on a universal level.

Declaration on the Human Environment : The Declaration is divided in two parts— first part proclaims seven truths about man in relation to his environment and part two enunciates 26 principles.

The first part contains general observations such as that man is both creature and mouldier of his environment which gives him physical sustenance and affords him the opportunity for intellectual, moral, social and spiritual growth. The protection and improvement of the human environmental is a major issue which affects the well-being of peoples and economic development throughout the world. It is the urgent desire of the peoples of the whole world and the duty of all governments in the developing countries to appreciate most of the environmental problems that are caused by under-development, the natural growth of population continuously presents problems of the preservation of the environment and adequate policies and measures as appropriate, to face these problems, and a point has been reached in history when we must shape our actions through the world with a more prudent case their environment consequences.

Part II of the Declaration contains Principles, Principles 1 which is of general nature states that man has a fundamental right to freedom, equality and adequate conditions of life, environment of a quality that permits a life of dignity and well-being, and bears a solemn responsibility to protect and improve the environment for present and future generations.

Principle 2 states that the natural resources of the earth including the air, water, land, flora and fauna and especially representative samples, of natural ecosystems must be safeguarded for the present and future generations through careful planning and management as appropriate.

The capacity of the earth to produce vital renewable resources must be maintained and wherever practicable restored or improved be maintained and wherever practicable restored or improved (Principle 3)

The discharge of toxic substances or of other substances and the release of heat, in such quantities or concentration as to exceed the capacity of the environment to render them harmless, must be halted in order to ensure that serious or irreversible damage is not inflicted upon ecosystems. The just struggle of the people of all countries against pollution should be supported (Principle 6).

States shall take all possible steps to prevent pollution of the seas by substances which are liable to create hazards to human health, to harm living resources and marine life, to damage amenities or to interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea (Principle 7).

Economic and social development is essential for ensuring a favourable living and working environment for man and for creating conditions on earth that are necessary for the improvement of the quality of life (Principle 8).

Scientific research and development in the context of environmental problems, both national and multinational must be promoted in all countries, especially the developing countries (Principle 20).

Principles 21 and 22 are particularly important for they proclaim certain Principles of international law respecting environmental preservation. Principle 21 provides that states have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of states or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.

According to Principle 22 “State shall cooperate to develop further the international law regarding liability and compensation for the victims of pollution and other environmental damage caused by activities within the jurisdiction or control of such states to areas beyond their jurisdiction.” These two principles (Principles 21 and 22) represent “the most significant consensus that has been reached in the field of international cooperation among states respecting in environmental preservation.

Principle 26 states that man and his environment must be spared the effects of nuclear weapons and all other means of mass destruction. States must strive to reach prompt agreement in the relevant international organs, on the elimination and complete destruction of such weapons.

Explain the Special Features of Environment Protection Act, 1986 ?

During the United Nations Conference of Human Environment at Stockholm the international community resolved to protect and promote the environmental quality, where India has vehemently voiced the environmental concerns. After this conference, with a view to implement this decisions Conference a general legislation was enacted in the form of
1 Protection Act, 1986. This Act now deals with the specific and hazardous substances. Special features of the present Act are the following

  1. Establishment of central Authority : A central authority i.e., Central Government assumed the role of studying, planning and implementing long term programme of environmental safety for providing directions and also to co-ordinate system of expeditious and effective response to threatening environment emergency has been established under the Environment Protection Act, 1986. The Act provides co-ordination of various environmental activities, regulates activities, creation of authorities with appropriate powers for environmental protection, regulation of discharge of environmental pollution and handling of hazardous substances etc. thus a central Authority is needed to implement and promote various environmental measures because of the multiplicity of regulatory environmental agencies.
  2. An Explanatory Legislation : The Environmental Protection Act, 1986 is an explanatory legislation because section 2 of the Act provides definitions of terms used under the Act. This section explains the terms, “Environmental pollutant”, “Environmental pollution”.
  3. Central government’s Power to give Directions: Under section 5 of the Act the Central Government may pass directions which are necessary to ensure the performance and formations of various agencies established under the Environment Protection Act, 1986.
  4. Rule Making Powers : Section 6 of the act provides that the Central Government may, by notification in the official gazette, make rules in respect of all or any of the matters referred to in section 3 of the Act. Thus to form rules to regulate environmental pollution.
  5. Constitution of Regulatory Authority : The Environment Protection Act, 1986 makes provision for the constitution of regular Environment Pollution Prevention and Control Authority in place of adhoc arrangement.
  6. Fixation of Environmental pollutants standards : Chapter 111 of the Environment Protection Act, 1986 prescribes standards for environmental pollutants whereby persons carrying on industry, operation etc. are not to be allowed discharge of environmental pollutants in excess of standards.
  7. Setting up of Environmental Laboratories : Section 12 of the Environment Protection Act, 1986 makes provision for setting of environmental laboratories to carry on the test/analysis in samples collected by the authorities concerned.
  8. Punitive measures : The ensure proper implementation of environmental measures the Environment Protection Act, 1986 provides punishment and imposes other punitive measures when standards prescribed in respect of environmental pollutants have not been complied with. Section 17 of the act deals with the offence committed by any department of Government. In that case the head of the department shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.
  9. Protection of Action taken in good faith: The Environment Protection Act, 1986 under section 18 provides that no suit, prosecution or other legal proceedings shall lie against the Government or any other authorities or Government offices in respect of anything which is done or intended to be done in good faith in pursuance of this Act or the rules made or orders or directions issued there under.

Thus the Environment Protection Act, 1986 is a special piece of legislation having a Central Authority deal with the environmental matters.

Essay on relationship between Man and Environment

Man is superior to all the organisms living on earth. Earlier due to small population and less development nature was able to fulfill the requirements of man and yet replenish itself but with the ever increasing human population the requirements have also increased. Man has been using natural resources at a pace which is much out many species of plants and animals from the earth and endangered several others. It is because he made space for himself by clearing the vegetation which sheltered these organisms. Man has polluted the air, water and land, and destroyed the precious resources and disturbed the ecological balance.

Man and Environment: Man is unique composition (creation) of nature and with it there is deeply relation. According to Indian thinking nature is for us and we are for nature. Nature adapting the principles that it completing all demand but no greed to anyone, it is its natural rule. In environment living thing and non-living thing do some activities with each other and when these activities become according to certain scale then we say it is pure environment. But due to lack of balance of these activities as a results of environment pollution. The voice of cuckoo is interesting for us but when a loud speaker speaks in loud voice is a form of voice pollution. In the same way to take breath in pure air is good experience. Smell air is a form of air pollution who pollute human’s activities. The adjustment of human with environment is very necessary.

Bio-sphere : Meaning of Bio-sphere is where live is possible. Earth is three sub-sphere are land sphere, water sphere and air sphere where meets, there is live possible. It is that sphere of earth where all kind of creatures are found. In land sphere water sphere and air sphere, the bio-sphere is some thin. In bio-sphere there are found all kind of creatures. All the creatures in bio-sphere are divided in two parts: (i) Creature (ii) Botany

Human being is also a part of environment like other creature. Biosphere is divided in three parts — (i) land sphere (ii) water sphere (iii) air sphere.

Essay on the scope of Environment

The scope of Environment study is large. Environment lies in land sphere, water sphere, air sphere and bio-sphere. These components of atmosphere are related with each other. These components are controller of human activities. So the environment is the group of as such physical components, in which particular physical power act and we can see its effect in visual and unvisual. In subject matter of environment study, various components of environment and economic, its effects, human environment relations are combined. With it pollution, population, urbanization and industrialization and its effect on environment, utility of resources, environment preservation and management are included in environment study. Environment is huge and multi-purpose subject. The relation of environment with other subjects is in this types

(i) Environment and Law: To prepare the rules related environment preservation and its explanation law helps the environmentalists.

(ii) Environment and Vehicle Industries: Study of Environments is useful for Environmentalists to prevent or control the smokes of the vehicles.

(iii) Environment and Historical and Religious heritage: Historical and religious is important heritage of any one country. Many specialist help to construct it. Environmental components of that area (either) affected it and destroy or increase it by preservation.

(iv) Environment and Agricultural: India is an agricultural country. It is a tradition of Indian agricultural that Indian farmers plough their fields by the adjustment with bio and non-bio components. Indian farmer does judgement with these land situation. A farm (field) is a complete ecological system in its own. Due to residency plans agricultural lands is becoming polluted by man through time and concrete.