Write short note on Strategies for conservation of wildlife

Strategies for Conservation of Wildlife : The conservation of living organisms is concerned with plants, animals and microbes of the biosphere in such a way that it would give great benefit to the present as well as future generations of man without reducing the potential. It takes into consideration the following objectives:

(i) Maintenance of ecological equilibrium between biotic and abiotic components.

(ii) Ensuring the optimum utilization of the existing plants and animals minimizing chance of their disappearance during the course of time.
(iii) Preservation of the total gene pools of the different species in the world.

It would be appropriate to mention some of the important steps proposed by various agencies of the world to save the existing wildlife.

(i) Wile life sanctuaries and national parks should be made keeping in mind the feeding, breeding and environmental needs of species concerned.

(ii) Proper planning of land and water utilization should be done to ensure the protection of wild life in their natural habitats such as zoo and botanic gardens.

(iii) Special attention should be given to conserve the species which fall in the category of endangered, vulnerable or rare species.

(iv) Attempts should be made at national level to identify natural habitats for specific wild animals and plants.

(v) The ecosystems having endangered or vulnerable species should be given priority with regard to their protection. The use of only such species or individuals should be allowed which will not disturb the balance in the ecosystem.

(vi) The protection of wild relatives of our food crops, forage plants and domesticated animals should be given priority because they are needed for introduction of desirable characters during the breeding programmes at national and international levels.

(vii) In the introduction of species between two countries, bilateral agreements should be reached to establish required network depending upon the need of the species.

(viii) Alternative measures should be adopted to allow the survival of a species being exploited by a country or a community or an industry.

(ix) The genetic diversity of a species should be safeguarded keeping in mind the international protection progammes, e.g., MAB (Man and Biosphere) project of UNESCO, and setting up of national parks and protected areas as suggested by JUCN.

Write a note on Conservation of Wild Animals ? Also explain conservation of forests.

Conservation of Wild Animals: “Wildlife” seem to be a broad term, covers any or all non cultivated and non domesticated life. It has in the recent past been largely used with reference to game and fur-bearing vertebrates, and to the plants and lesser animals which interact directly with the game species. Even fish, which are often “wild”, have been excluded from the wildlife category and treated under other headings. The trend of the 1970 and beyond includes a broader concept of wildlife. It is because (i) an increasingly large number of people are becoming interested in non game species (song birds, for example) and (ii) since preservation of outdoor recreation in general depends more and more on like preservation of the totality of the wildlife ecosystem.

Wildlife management is a field of applied ecology and concerned not only with game production land. This is not only suitable for anything else, but also with game “crops”. This may also be produced on more productive land being used primarily for agriculture or forestry. As land becomes intensively farmed or urbanized wildlife becomes largely a function of “edges”.

The large blocks of forest and prairie may he broken up into numerous small pieces-which are interspersed with crop Gelds, roads, and house sites. The original upland game birds, the ruffed grouse and the prairie chicken, this way will be completely replaced by other few species. Introduced species this way become adapted to intensively fanned areas. Thus, as the landscape becomes more “domesticated” so does the wildlife. Under such conditions, habitat living space, disease, and predation replace food as major limiting factors.

This brings us to the point that efforts to roster and increase wildlife populations have been generally directed along four major lines : (1) preservation of breeding stock by means of game laws restricting the harvest and other similar measures, (2) artificial stocking, (3) habitat improvement, and (4) game farming. When game begins to get scarce, people generally think and act in the order listed above, which is sometimes unfortunate, since the third item is often more important than the first two. If suitable habitat is lacking protection or stocking is useless. As the human population density increases, game and fish management as such is faced with the same dilemma as forestry, namely, to what extent can the demand for hunting and fishing be accommodated under natural area management and to what extent will it be necessary to “farm” game and fish. The ultimate in wildlife farming involves artificial propagation of animals, stocking, and harvest within a few days or weeks of release with the hunter or fisherman paying a large fee for the privilege of shooting or fishing what amounts to a domesticated or feral population. Like all agro business, game farming has “unforeseen” problems such as predation, disease, nutritional problems, artificial selection,and so on, and requires energy subsidy in the form of supplemental food, labour, taxes, and so on.

Conservation of Forests : Some measures specially prescribed for the preservation of forests are the following.
1. Extraction of timber should not interfere with watershed protection. Tree-felling should be matched by tree-planting programmes.
2. The use of firewood should be discouraged to reduce pressure on more valuable natural forests. Other sources of energy, such as biogas, have to be provided to supplement the firewood.
3. Modem management practices such as optimization of silvicultural and nutritional requirements, including use of irrigation, fertilizers, bacterial and mycorrhizal inoculations, disease and pest management, control of weeds, breeding of the elite trees and use of tissue culture techniques have to be adopted.

The Union and State governments have launched several afforeation programmes as part of the forest conservation started in 1976. It seeks the use of public and common land to produce firewood, fodder, and small timber for the use of the rural community to relieve pressure on existing forests needed for soil and water conservation. The programme includes raising, planting and protecting trees with multiple uses (firewood, fodder, agricultural implements, fruits, etc.) for the rural community.
The Agroforestry Programme consists of reviving an ancient land use practice where the same land is used for farming, forestry and animal husbandry.

The Urban Forestry Programme aims at planting trees for aesthetic purposes. in urban settlements. Flower and fruit trees are planted along the road side, private compounds and vacant lands to add colour and mitigate the harshness of the urban environment.

Experts believe that for sustaining agriculture and maintaining the quality of environment at least one-third of a country’s land should be under forests. This requires action at all levels : individuals, the community and the government. There have been several people’s movements in recent times in India, such as the Chipko Movement (Tehri Garhwal area of Uttar Pradesh) and the public agitation for preventing the construction of a hydroelectric project in the Silent Valley region. Protection of precious forests, especially in the ecologically fragile areas, should be supplemented by efforts to plant and regenerate forests.

What is the relationship between Conservation and Development?

Ecology is the science of inter-relationships between environment and the living communities including man. Environment and biotic communities are interacting units. For example, photosynthesis and the availability of sunlight has resulted in the formation of our arerobic atmosphere.

Scarcity of plants and grasses which provides as food for herbivores, cause starvation among them, In the same manner indiscriminate and unplanned hunting of herbivores leads to shortage of food for carnivores in forests. When the forest land is converted into agricultural lands, the wild animal species are either forced to emigrate or to die. Due to modification of natural environment and further accentuates the severity of man made environmental pollution.

The ultimate aim of all economic development plan and the conservation of natural resources is to improve the welfare and quality of human life. Both these aspects are correlated with each other and are inseparable. The economy of a community depends on the richness of its natural resources. The fruits of conservation of nature are obtained after hard work and
of several years whereas the gains of economic activities developmental activities of man have their impact upon natural, biotic, climatic factors, water and soil resources. Natural conservation plans should be planned on long-term basis so that they can fulfill the ever ending needs of man for a a longer period. The natural conservation approach is the most suitable as it is is scientifically sound and bears long term effects on man. The town planners while planning new towns should bear in mind the basic ecological principles that govern the functioning and stability of the ecosystem.


Explain the Conservation of National Resources? What do you mean by water conservation ?


Conservation of National Resources

Man is the greatest enemy of environment, as he has the ability to modify it. With increase in its population, there is a need to develop the new areas on the earth which has not been utilized previously. There is need to increase the production of the old areas. Water, air and soil resources are to be protected from adverse effects of pollution caused by wastes and other industrial products. The physical and biological environments, control man and other animals. To improve his standard of living, improvement of the environment is essential. Environmental conservation is a continuous process which is essential to maintain our living standard.

Conservation is the protection, preservation and use of the natural resources of the earth. The term natural resources means all land, minerals, waters, vegetation and wildlife useful to human society. Conservation of natural resources means control and management of land and its minerals, soil, water, vegetation, etc. It is also applied ecology. The important natural resources which need conservation are land, water, minerals and soil.

Since man began to realize the consequences of unlimited exploitation of the nature by him, all the efforts are being made to study the environmental problems on global level. The ecologists consider whole of the biosphere as a workable ecosystem and man constitutes an important component as well as factor in it. In order to meet his increasing demand of food, shelther, energy, etc. he has started exploiting indiscriminately his natural resources at a very rapid rate, thus causing ecological imbalance of the nature. With the rapid increase in human population, man has to understand ecological potential of his environment Realizing the need of evaluating the biotic potential of different kinds of habitats of biosphere, two very important Programmes have been launched on global level (i) International Biological programme (IBP) (ii) Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB).

 Water conservation in India

Though water renews itself through hydrological cycles, still an increasing demand for water needs its conservation. Following measures can be adopted for this purpose.

1. Treatment of used water before passing it into irrigational channels
2. Prevention of wastage of water in irrigation by brick lining of channels and subsurface and sprinkler techniques.
3. Prevention of water wastage in industries and homes.
4. Prevention of water pollution by not allowing raw sewage and industrial effluents to pass into water bodies.
5. Building of dams upstreams to store flood water for use during dry periods.
6. Afforestation and reforestation of hill slopes and catchment areas to hold water and prevent its loss through floods.
7. Building of tanks and ponds to retain rain water for later use in areas, where perennial sources of water are not available.

Explain the Modes of Conservation ?

Modes of Conservation

1. Protection of Law : It is very necessary that stringent laws are passed now and enforced very strictly. There will be always the case of the law breakers. The defect about this method is that under legal protection some animals alone will become plentiful and become a nuisance. Again this is a less effective method as when the laws are enforced some people may stealthily hunt the protected animals and earn huge profits and thereby nullify the very purpose of the law.

2. Establishment of Sanctuaries and Refuges : After the establishment of the Indian Board for wild life in 1952 many sanctuaries and refuges have been set up. Most of the sanctuaries have ideal conditions for the animals to live. However, a constant watch must be kept on the numbers so that overpopulation is not allowed.

3. Restoration of the Original Habitat: This is a case of rectifying the mistakes committed earlier. If for example a lake was drained for fields it can be reformed. Similarly, forests that, are denuded can again be restored by reforestation. The main aim of Vanamahotsava is towards reforestation and increase of plant wealth. A polluted river can be made alright by treating the effluents with chemicals. Roads and railways can be avoided through dense forests.

4. Better Living Conditions:
(a) Provision of cover :
Animals can be encouraged to live in any
by providing cover in the form of shrubs and trees. Even grasslands
can be converted into ideal places for wild animals if trees and shrubs are planted in between in long rows. In Europe often hedges are used as farm
strips of plant life are left along margins of fields to enable animals to move to their places of food and water and food

(b) Provision of food : In the reforestation programme those trees and
plants should be planted in abundance which form food for the wild animals by those in authority.

5. Raising for Fur and Game animals: Many of the fur bearers threatened with epidemics. In that case it is necessary to isolate the animals and rear them in protected areas for subsequent release in their original habitats.

6. Educating the Common Man : All the efforts of the Government and private agencies will fail if the common man is not educated regarding the preservation of wild life. There must he more books available on wild life so that even children can know about them people must be encouraged to visit sanctuaries and spend days there. Arrangements must be made to create interest among the common man so that the learns more about the wild life. This is the most important method of preservation.

In India there is a greater need of scientific conservation today than before. Among all the measures for conservation the most important method of conservation is habitat improvement.