Write short note on Environment and Sustainable Development.

Environment and Sustainable Development

Ancient man was living in jungles and was leading a harmonious life with the nature. But the modern man is living in the age of science and technology. Earlier, man was being controlled by the nature but now, man is controlling the natural environment. He has developed big cities, industries, agricultural lands, dams, means of transport, and communication etc. however this has caused depletion and degradation of natural environment because of the fact that he has utilized the various natural resources to a very large extent. Sustainable development means to maintain a balance between development and environment.

Following are some of the methods suggested for sustained development without depletion of natural resources and ecodegradation.
1 Reduction in man’s dependence on fossil fuels and development of alternate sources of energy like solar energy. Solar energy can be trapped by the development of photovoltaic cells, cooker, heaters etc.
2. Development of battery driven vehicles.
3. The use of biogas plants so that agricultural and animal wastes can be utilized for the production of energy.
4. The use of wind and tidal power should be explored more extensively.
5. Exploitation of sea and its resources.
6. Cultivation of more fuelwood trees and shrubs in the various areas of the land where they are not growing.
7.Recycling of Wastes.

Important principles of social responsibility

(i) To avoid misuse of national resources.
(ii) To avoid government regulation and control.
(iii) The iron law of responsibility.
(iv) To avoid class conflicts.

Social Environment : The social environment of business by certain factors like social behaviour, social interests, expectation level of education and understanding among people, social values and beliefs, social customs and traditions.  The business which neglects these factors will be subjected to criticism. A business cannot build up its image in the society without considering the social objects and values.

Cultural environment : The cultural environment is formed by the art, sahitya and life style of the people.  Arthur Millan in his Drama entitled “The Death of a Salesman” has stated that the pressure of competition influenced the thinking of a salesman in such a way that ultimately he committed suicide. The cultural values developing throughout the-world towards ‘Women’s liberation’, drug culture, youth-oriented society, etc. have influenced considerably the business policies.

The society and culture are the fundamental base of business. No business can overlook the country’s cultural heritage and values, if it wants to survive. Businessmen need to function on the basis of social expectations, desires, likes and preferences. They have to respect the human society, its cultural, values and traditions.

What is the relationship between Conservation and Development?

Ecology is the science of inter-relationships between environment and the living communities including man. Environment and biotic communities are interacting units. For example, photosynthesis and the availability of sunlight has resulted in the formation of our arerobic atmosphere.

Scarcity of plants and grasses which provides as food for herbivores, cause starvation among them, In the same manner indiscriminate and unplanned hunting of herbivores leads to shortage of food for carnivores in forests. When the forest land is converted into agricultural lands, the wild animal species are either forced to emigrate or to die. Due to modification of natural environment and further accentuates the severity of man made environmental pollution.

The ultimate aim of all economic development plan and the conservation of natural resources is to improve the welfare and quality of human life. Both these aspects are correlated with each other and are inseparable. The economy of a community depends on the richness of its natural resources. The fruits of conservation of nature are obtained after hard work and
of several years whereas the gains of economic activities developmental activities of man have their impact upon natural, biotic, climatic factors, water and soil resources. Natural conservation plans should be planned on long-term basis so that they can fulfill the ever ending needs of man for a a longer period. The natural conservation approach is the most suitable as it is is scientifically sound and bears long term effects on man. The town planners while planning new towns should bear in mind the basic ecological principles that govern the functioning and stability of the ecosystem.

 

Discuss the national forest policy of development programme of India?

National Forest Policy: During the early years of the British rule, when conditions were unsettled, Reckless destruction of forests went on unchecked. The East India Co. was more interested n immediate gains than in a long-term benefits to the country. With the transfer of authority in 1857 from the East India Co. to the British Crown, however, there was a welcome change of emphasis from immediate gains to long term benefits. The rapidly shrinking supplies of timber and fire-wood and the extensive soil erosion which followed deforestation compelled the Government to pay some attention to the urgent need for the preservation of forest wealth. Therefore, a forest policy had to be evolved. The first Inspector General of Forests was appointed in 1863 and in 1894 a Resolution on forest policy was issued. This Resolution said that: (i) forests should be managed to promote general well being of the country (ii) they should be maintained for the preservation of climatic and physical conditions of the country and (iii) to supply and fulfill the needs of the people for fuel and industries. This policy related to state forests in British provinces and forests were divided into : (a) forests, the preservation of which was essential on climatic or physical grounds; (b) forests that afforded a supply of valuable timber for commercial purposes; (c) minor forest: and (d) pasture lands.

Under the Indian Forest Act of 1927, three categories of forests were recognized- Reserved forests (the most strictly controlled). Protected forests (less strictly controlled), and Unclassed forests (which include ‘village forests’ or land classed as ‘culturable waste’).

Since the first systematic Forest Policy was declared, changes of far reaching importance had taken place in the economic field. Most important of these were:

(i) A substantial increase in human and bovine population which led to a heavier pressure on forest demanding more land for agriculture and pastures.
(ii) A heavy dependence on forest resources during the two world wars which led to rapid depletion of these resources.
(iii) Independent India launched reconstruction schemes such as the river projects, agricultural colonization schemes, development of forest based industries, and laying down of new railway lines all leaned very heavily on the forest products, and lastly.
(iv) Forest began to be regarded as the foster mother and not as the hand-maid of  agriculture.

Forest Development Programmes

For soil and water conservation and satisfaction of the present and prospective demand of the people for fuel wood and of the industries for industrial woods and other raw materials forest development has been regarded as a sine quo non for economic progress of the country. With this aim in view, the improvement of the existing forests received attention in the Five-Year Plans. The first two Plans put considerable emphasis on their consolidation, improvement of degraded forests, establishment of economic plantations of fast growing trees and improvement of communications.

Vana Mahaotsava was inaugurated in 1950 to create an enthusiasm in the popular mind for the preservation of forests and planting of new trees, as “trees means water, water means bread and bread is life. ‘ It was also hoped that it would create tree-consciousness among the people. The planting of trees during Vanmahotsava was to serve the following purposes:

(i) To provide fuel and thus release cow dung for use as manure.
(ii) To increase production of fruits and add to the potential food resources of the country;
(iii) To help creation of shelter-belts around agricultural fields, to increase their productivity;
(iv) To provide fodder leaves for cattle to relieve intensity of grazing over reserved forests.

The Third Plan emphasized the protective as well as the productive role of forests in the Indian economy and suggested a long term objective that a third of the land area should be under forests.

The Fourth Plan envisaged a high increase in the demand for various forest products both for industrial and for fuel purposes. During the Fourth plan in the sector of forestry three main objectives were to be achieved (a) to increase the productivity of forests (b) to link up forests development with various forests-based industries; and (c) to develop forests as a support to rural economy. Intensive exploitation and rational utilization of existing forest resources was aimed at.

The primary objective of the Draft Fifth Plan is: (i) To initiate measures for increasing production of Industrial wood and other forest products by a change over from conservation oriented forestry to a dynamic programme of production forestry, aiming at clear felling and creating large man made forests with the help of institutional fmancing. The produce from clear felled areas is to be used in wood-based industries by locating additional units wherever required; (ii) To develop farm forestry and improvements of degraded forests to increase the fuel and timber supply in the rural areas, (iii) To assess the present growing stocks, increments and potential increments by forest divisions, natural regions and timber slates, along with a proper information system on the forest working plans and working schemes.

During the Sixth Plan Period the Forest Conservation Act 1980 was enacted with the main objective of checking the diversion of forest land for non-forestry purposes.

The rule and importance of forests in the general economic development of the country in terms of protection of the ecosystem and supply of various forest products is better understood now the task bringing one third of the geographical area of the country under tree cover becomes a vital need and all possible efforts have to made to achieve this target by the end of this century.

Establishment of National Wasteland Development Boards, reconstitution of the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education and application of remote sensing in forestry management are the new thrust areas for the Seventh Year Plan regarding the development of forest wealth in the country and to develop the research and education.