Explain the main causes of low productivity of forests?

The main causes of low productivity of forests are:

(i) Large area of unclassed State forests and the former private forests, acquired by the Government after the abolition of zamindari, are undermocked and required to be rehabilitated. The difficulty in organizing the Commercial exploitation of these products arise from their erratic distribution. Some products like Ephedra, Ratanjot and Kuth occur at high elevations. Myrobolans are usually dispersed over extensive areas rendering the cost of collection prohibitive. Herbs suffer from the same handicap.

(ii) Customary forest rights and concessions granted to the tribals and forest people for free grazing of their cattle in the forests and removing Umber, fuel and manure and minor forest produce have been very liberally exercised by them for a long time and this has led to the reduction of forest yield.

(iv) The large animal population reduces the possibility of efficient forest management, preservation and expansion through afforestation.

(v) Some of the forests (about 43 percent) have not yet been opened up sufficiently and therefore, only the most valuable trees can be extracted economically, others go to waste. Besides very few types in Indian forests are gregarious to enable their economical exploitation.

(vi) An appreciable proportion of trees are malformed or consist of species which are slow growing and poor yielders.

(vii) Antiquated transport and lack of proper bridle paths-rope ways and the road system in the forest areas are other bottlenecks in the full utilization of resources.

(viii) The methods of felling, fashioning and slow means of transportation entail much wastage and the costs are also high.

(ix) Large quantities of inferior woods which could be put to economic use through seasoning and preservation treatment remain only partially utilized.

(x) These are no commercial forests and most of the forests are meant for protective purposes. Reserved forests represent 48 percent : Protected forests 32 percent and unclassified forests are forests in name only.

(xi) The yield from forests is low because static conservancy (or natural growth of forests) is even now practised. This has its importance when scientific management had just begun. But now it is not suitable.

(xii) There are over one million hectares of over-aged inaccessible forests in H.P. and UP. in remote areas which are deteriorating and await immediate exploitation. The stands in these forest areas are good and valuable, they need good management practices.

(xiii) Many species of wood possess such defects as excessive sharpness, heaviness, twisted grains, brittleness, presence of oils or abrasive materials, poor seasoning ability and impregnation qualities which have rendered them economically useless.

(xiv) Lastly, inadequate protection against fire, plant diseases, insects, lack of complete information regarding timber supplies and other forest resources, inadequate research facilities and insufficiency of trained personnel are other factors which militate against full production.