Explain the management of forest?

To encourage forestation and prevent wasteful approach of human beings, introduction of proper management methods is necessary. This would check block cutting, deforestation, pest and fire control. A recycling procedure ensuring continuous supply of forest products should be planned on long- term basis, so that the forest resources could last for a larger period. It is very important for our very, survival. For example, we need the modest- timber supply annually and this harvested crops should be replaced by an equal amount of timber crop growth. Timber trees grow mature in 15 to 100 years, so its recycling should be planned accordingly.

(1) Block cutting method is generally adopted in the forest which have even aged trees, of a few species only. Coniferous forests are cut in this way. Thus a particular area is denoted by cutting down its entire tree population. Such area may be in the centre of interior of the forest and the last forest area is replaced by reforestation of adjacent area of the same size. This would result in a sustained supply of forest products without adversely affecting the actual size of the forest. Thus the annual forest cutting is followed by annual replantation of the deforested areas. Deforestation should take place in a limited area only. Thus the forests would be conserved and its yield should be high. It would last for a very long period.

(2) By effective forest management, floods, soil erosion end expansion of desert can be checked. Floods in our country, to. a large extent is a result of indiscriminate and excessive deforestation every year. Moreover there are no effective measures to force replantation of trees in denuded area. Illegal falling of in nature trees add more problems. It is to be checked immediately.

(3) Forest and wild life conservation are intra-related as the forests serve as the best habitat for them The forests serve natural home for game animals. But due to deforestation and hunting, tiger and lions alongwith others, have undergone extinction.

(4) Parasitic fingi such as rusts, smuts and mildews, viruses and insects are some of the disease causing agents in the forest. Biological controls can be introduced. The insects bug feeds upon the weed Lantana and thus it can control its growth. Thus in such control, the biological agent is introduced to remove the undesirable species from an area. Some of the fungal viral resistant species of the forest trees have been produced and introduced in the forests.

(5) Timber is an important product of forest tress which is of high economical value. After removing the stem of timber trees, which are main source of timber, stumps, leaves, barks are left behind as waste.

A proper management of timber forests can only ensure this. This needs further plantation of forests in such a way that is double to deforestation, improved timber quality through genetic research, avoidance of useful cutting, control of forest, introduction of pests resistant varieties of trees and a planned, falling of trees.

Explain the Land and Water Management in India. Discuss Waste Land Development. 

India is a predominantly agricultural country. A large number of our industries also depend on agriculture. A survey of the present status of land in India has shown that most of our croplands, woodlands and grasslands have already become deteriorated owing to faulty agricultural practices. Soil erosion, deforestation, water logging, salination and urban encroachment have considerably affected our productive lands.
Out of India’s total land mass of 305 million hectares (ha) nearly half is considered as waste land. Around 18 million he are under urban and productive use. Another 21 million ha are rocky or snow-bound. Of the remaining 266 million are culturable waste, 23 million hectares are fallows, 83 million ha are classified as forests and pasture land and 143 million hectares are agricultural land.

The man-land ratio is very low in India. Due to high population pressure the per capita available land in our country is only 0.48 hectare. We must learn to survive with this serious limitation. This requires understanding, planning and integrated management of land and water.

The Himalaya is one of the most crucial watersheds in the world with very high sedimentation rate. Execution of environmentally unsound
developmental plans and defective land use in the mountains have created
grave problems in the plains of India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Every year over 400 million people are ravaged by recurring floods and their consequences. With increasing misuse of the Himalayan slopes, damage to reservoirs and irrigation system is accelerating.

The treatment of catchments should be done on an environmentally sound basis. It must begin from the top-most reaches of the catchment. The land to be conserved should be planted with economically and socially useful trees and grasses, chosen according to edaphic and climatic conditions and local needs.

The productivity to canal irrigated lands in India is still very poor in comparison with that in other countries because of water — logging and salinity. Proper drainage and desalination practices can overcome these problems.

One untapped source of water in India is the ground water. There are several advantages in using ground water, These are:
(i) It can be tapped in a very short time.
(ii) The cost of tube-wells is low.
(lii) It is easier to raise the interest Of the farmers.
(iv) Irrigation is highly economical because it does not involve storage and transport.
(v) It is not vulnerable to evaporation and seepage losses.
(vi) The ground water is especially suitable in canal command areas because it helps in lowering the water tables and
(vii) A large amount of ground water is available even in dçsert areas.
A scientific investigation of the ground water potential together with the replenishment rates should be undertaken.

Wasteland Development

To meet the needs of the increasing population, the demand on land for agriculture, industry and settlement is increasing. On the other hand good land is shrinking due to degradation. As explained above, a large part of our country’s land is considered as wasteland. Wastelands can be broadly classified into two types : culturable wastelands (ravenous and gullied lands. Surface water-logged land and march, saline lands and lands with lateritic soils, shifting cultivation areas, degraded, forest lands, strip lands, mining and industrial wastelands, etc.) and unculturable wastelands (barren rocky areas, steep slopes, snow-capped mountains and glaciers). Development and reclamation of culturable wastelands can increase the availability of land for productivity.

Reclaimation of wasteland involves high expenditure, expertise and manpower. But wasteland that is reclaimable within the financial means and known techniques should be immediately undertaken. There are over 87 million hectare (ha) of agricultural land prone to degradation by severe erosion. This land must be saved on a priority basis measures that will minimize soil erosion. Some of these practices are creation of shelter belts, revegetation of steep slopes etc.

Write an essay on solid waste management ?

Solid waste, often called the third pollution after air and water pollution, as that material which arises from various human activities and which is normally discarded as useless or unwanted. It consists of the highly
heterogeneous mass of discarded materials from the urban community as well as the more homogeneous accumulation of agricultural, industrial and mining wastes.

Solid wastes may be classified based partly on content and partly on value. A typical classification is as follows :

(a) Garbage : Refers to non-putrescible solid waste constituents produced during the preparation or storage of meat, fruit, vegetables, etc. These wastes have a moisture content of about 70% .

(b) Rubbish: Refers to non-putrescible solid waste constituents either
combustible or non-combustible. Combustible waste would include paper,
wood, scrap, rubber, leather etc. Non-combustible wastes are metals, glass , ceramics etc. These wastes contain a moisture content of about 25% and the heating value of the waste is around 15 x 106 J/kg.

(c) Pathological Wastes: Dead animals, human waste, etc. The moisture content is 85% and there are 5% non-combustible solids.

(d) Industrial wastes: Chemicals, paints, sand, fly ash etc.

(e) Agricultural wastes:  Farm animal manure, crop residues, etc.

In India authentic information regarding the composition of the urban wastes is not generally available as regular analysis of the refuse is not carried out by the municipalities. In fact, refuse is very heterogeneous in composition and the geographical, temporal and seasonal variations in its composition make it difficult to define a “typical refuse”. The solid refuse generated in urban areas contains articles of various sizes and types and consists of dust, vegetable leaves, waste paper, large paper-board cartons, glass bottles, worn out tyres, carcasses of animals and night soil.

Potential Methods of Disposal

In recent years new and better methods for solid waste management have been suggested and / or developed. Some of the ideas are discussed in this section.

(a) Utilization: Many solid wastes generated by industry can be utilized directly. Fly and bottom ash from power plants can be used commercially, largely as cement substitute. New uses are being developed for fly ash, e.g.,. to make bricks, do dewater industrial wastewater sludge, as a land cover etc. India produces about 6 x 10 tones of bagasse from sugar cane annually. This bagasse can be utilized for the manufacture of paper pulp which can displace hardwood pulp of similar quality and cost. There are some novel uses of sugar cane bagasse. One sugar cane company in South Africa has integrated its operation with the production of eggs and dairy products.

(b) Recovery and Recycling : Solid wastes contain significant amounts of valuable materials like steel, aluminum, copper and other metals which, if they are recovered and reused, would reduce the volume of the wastes to be collected and at the same time would yield significant salvage and resale income. In addition, better reclamation techniques will help to save valuable natural resources and turn wastes, which could be dangerous, into useful products. Some important solid wastes that have been successfully reclaimed  are paper, glass, metals and plastics.