Explain the socio-economic factors controlling population density.


Establishment of industries in the cities resulted in the accumulation of wealth. The property resulted in urban growth, because it attracted persons from nearby villages. The mass migration of persons to cities imposed following problems (i) Overcrowding, leading to the problems of rehabilitation, sanitation and sewage disposal. (ii) Transportation and associated traffic problems. (iii) Environmental pollution, generated by industrial activities and automobiles, (iv) Noise pollution, (v) Various socioeconomic and cultural changes and problems related to juvenile delinquency and crime.  The urbanization has utilized most of our fertile agricultural land for houses, industries, factories, government offices, schools hospitals and for constructing roads etc. This resulted in transport and import of necessary materials from nearby places. All these problems are socio-economic and increasing day by day. The man’s hunger for accumulation of wealth and to’ become supreme has resulted in blind competition of weapons and atomic energy. At present a few men or even one man can destroy the whole human race.

Urbanisation has also disturbed the pre-existing balance in the biosphere and has resulted in the population of those natural resources and air and water which support the world biota and which man utilizes himself. According to Geologists, man is gradually threatening its existence by disturbing the nature in an unplanned way for his physical comforts.

Demographic Factors

Factors that affect population, its growth, distribution and density are called demographic factors. The population (mortality), scarcity of food etc. are the demographic factors controlling the overall pattern of population density. These interact with the environment factors and determine the biotic potential of the population.
A population in its exponential growth phase shows a very high rate population increase. But once it becomes stabilised, the rate of population increase declines. The theory pertaining to such a population is called the Theory of Demographic Transition. A human population has witnessed the same demographic transition which is still exhibited by some of the underdeveloped and developing countries. It must have passed through the following phases in sequence.

1. In the initial growth stage human population has very high birth and death rates prior to.modern era. This is still found in Afganistan and Angola.
2. High birth and death rate in 18th century which are still seen in Pakistan, Indonesia and Bolivia.
3. Nigh birth and moderate death rate in the 19 century exhibited by populations of present day developed countries when these were developing and is seen at present in the presently developing countries like India and Morocco.

Define the term Population. What are the important characteristics of a population?

The world population is derived from the Latin word popular which means people. It is often used to refer human such as the human population in a city. But in the biological sense, a population is an assemblage of organisms (plants or animals) which belong to a single species or to several closely related species occupying a particular area, as for example, bullfrogs in a pond, grasshoppers in a field or pone trees in a forest. According to WYNNE EDWARDS (1965), a population is a self regulating system.

CLARKE (1954) has distinguished two types of population : (I) Monospecific with individuals of the same specific and (2) mixed or polyspecific with individuals of several species.

Characteristics Population – According to THOMAS PARK, a population has several characteristics or attributes which are a function of the whole group and not of the individual. These are —
1. Population density 2. Depression
3. Birth-rate 4. Dispersal
5. Death-rate 6. Biotic potential
7. Age-distribution 8. Population equilibrium
9. Growth form 10. Population fluctuations.

The rapid increase in population over the last four decades is referred to as population exploitation. This has been caused by:
(a) High birth rate
(b) Sharp decline in death rate.
This in turn has been caused by following factors
(i) Universal and early marriage in India.
(ii) Our ability to control famines and epidemics.
(iii) Improved sanitation and medical health facilities.
(iv) Ignorance about and lack of willingness to adopt birth control measures. .

What do you understand by Population Density?

Population density can be defined as the number of individuals per unit area or per unit volume. The units of population density differ in different cases, as for example, the number of squirrels per square mile, the number of earthworms or trees per acre and the number of diatioms per litre of water. When the individual size in a population Is highly variable, some type of biomass or live weight measured. is used as an unit of density. Thus the unit measurement varies for different types of populations.

There are two ways of expressing the population density, the crude density and the ecological density. The crude density is the total number of individual or biomass per unit of total area or total volume. Ecological density is the number of individuals or the biomass per unit of that area or volume which is actually inhabited by those individuals.