Explain the Land and Water Management in India. Discuss Waste Land Development. 

India is a predominantly agricultural country. A large number of our industries also depend on agriculture. A survey of the present status of land in India has shown that most of our croplands, woodlands and grasslands have already become deteriorated owing to faulty agricultural practices. Soil erosion, deforestation, water logging, salination and urban encroachment have considerably affected our productive lands.
Out of India’s total land mass of 305 million hectares (ha) nearly half is considered as waste land. Around 18 million he are under urban and productive use. Another 21 million ha are rocky or snow-bound. Of the remaining 266 million are culturable waste, 23 million hectares are fallows, 83 million ha are classified as forests and pasture land and 143 million hectares are agricultural land.

The man-land ratio is very low in India. Due to high population pressure the per capita available land in our country is only 0.48 hectare. We must learn to survive with this serious limitation. This requires understanding, planning and integrated management of land and water.

The Himalaya is one of the most crucial watersheds in the world with very high sedimentation rate. Execution of environmentally unsound
developmental plans and defective land use in the mountains have created
grave problems in the plains of India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Every year over 400 million people are ravaged by recurring floods and their consequences. With increasing misuse of the Himalayan slopes, damage to reservoirs and irrigation system is accelerating.

The treatment of catchments should be done on an environmentally sound basis. It must begin from the top-most reaches of the catchment. The land to be conserved should be planted with economically and socially useful trees and grasses, chosen according to edaphic and climatic conditions and local needs.

The productivity to canal irrigated lands in India is still very poor in comparison with that in other countries because of water — logging and salinity. Proper drainage and desalination practices can overcome these problems.

One untapped source of water in India is the ground water. There are several advantages in using ground water, These are:
(i) It can be tapped in a very short time.
(ii) The cost of tube-wells is low.
(lii) It is easier to raise the interest Of the farmers.
(iv) Irrigation is highly economical because it does not involve storage and transport.
(v) It is not vulnerable to evaporation and seepage losses.
(vi) The ground water is especially suitable in canal command areas because it helps in lowering the water tables and
(vii) A large amount of ground water is available even in dçsert areas.
A scientific investigation of the ground water potential together with the replenishment rates should be undertaken.

Wasteland Development

To meet the needs of the increasing population, the demand on land for agriculture, industry and settlement is increasing. On the other hand good land is shrinking due to degradation. As explained above, a large part of our country’s land is considered as wasteland. Wastelands can be broadly classified into two types : culturable wastelands (ravenous and gullied lands. Surface water-logged land and march, saline lands and lands with lateritic soils, shifting cultivation areas, degraded, forest lands, strip lands, mining and industrial wastelands, etc.) and unculturable wastelands (barren rocky areas, steep slopes, snow-capped mountains and glaciers). Development and reclamation of culturable wastelands can increase the availability of land for productivity.

Reclaimation of wasteland involves high expenditure, expertise and manpower. But wasteland that is reclaimable within the financial means and known techniques should be immediately undertaken. There are over 87 million hectare (ha) of agricultural land prone to degradation by severe erosion. This land must be saved on a priority basis measures that will minimize soil erosion. Some of these practices are creation of shelter belts, revegetation of steep slopes etc.

Write an essay on Water Pollution ?

The contamination of water with harmful chemicals and radiations is called water pollution. There are various causes of water pollution including:
(i) Many industries and factories are built near the banks of rivers, lakes etc. as such water gets polluted.
(ii) The atomic explosions in seas spread radio active waste which pollute the water.
(iii) In some cities, sewer lines pour human and animals waste and garbage from the city into nearby river or other water body so water gets polluted.
(iv) In villages people wash their dirty clothes, take bath and clean their utensils in the pond, lake, or near open wells. So water gets polluted.
(v) Nuclear power reactors discharge radio active wastes and hot water in rivers. So water gets polluted.

Control of Water Pollution
Water pollution can be checked or at least minimized by the following measures:

1. The sewage should be suitably treated before releasing it into water. It is one of the most important means to recover usable water from the sewage. It involves three steps:
(a) In the first step primary treatment stage, the larger and suspended particles are removed by simple physical methods such as sedimentation and filtration.
(b) In the second step ox secondary treatment stage, air is supplied to promote bacterial decomposition of the organic matter followed by chiorintion to kill’the germs.
(c) In the third step or tertiary treatment stage, the salts like nitrates and phosphates are removed by precipitation technique. Many developing countries follow only the first two steps as the third step is quite expensive.

Three stages of sewage treatment: The primary stage removes solid material. In the second stage, organic wastes are decomposed by micro organisms. Tertiary treatment removes minerals that may case cutrophication.

2. The industrial effluents should be suitably treated before releasing pollutants. For example, the acids and alkalies can be neutralized, the colloidal materials can be coagulated, while the metallic salts can be precipitated.

3. Hot water should be cooled before release from the power plants.

4. Washing clothes and taking bath directly in tanks, streams and rivers, which supply drinking water, should be prohibited.

5. Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides should be avoided and as far as possible less stable pesticides should be used.

6. Water hyacinth (an aquatic weed) can purify water by taking some toxic materials and a number of heavy metals from water.

Write an essay on Water Pollution ?

Water is a prime necessity of life. It is being put to varied uses by man like cooking, drinking, bathing, disposal of sewage, irrigation, generating electricity in power plants, cooling and manufacturing different products in the industries and the disposal of industrial waste. During all these processes the undesirable substance are added to the water sources to such an extent that 70% streams and rivers in India contain polluted water.

Sources of Water Pollution

1. Domestic sewage:  The domestic sewage includes household wastes which pass through municipal sewerage system. It includes food wastes, modern synthetic detergents used for washing clothes and cleaning bathrooms and latrines / human excreta and the water based paints.

2. Industrial effluents : Industries cause chemical contamination of water sources, because the industrial wastes are discharged in the nearby rivers or streams through flush-line of factories The textile, sugar and fertilizer factories, oil refineries, plants for manufacturing of drugs, rubber, plastic and rayon fibres, the paper industries and the chemical factories all cause chemical pollution.

The wastes from chemical factories (caustic soda and chlorine) are rich in mercury which enters the aquatic life, effluents from paper mills contain lignite sulphite or waste lacquer, cyanide rich wastes are liberated from blast furnaces. The wastes from cotton mills and paper and pulp industries are heavily loaded with organic compounds and those inorganic substances which reduce oxygen contents of water Industrial wastes from metal furnishing and electroplating plants contain harmful heavy metals and cyanides which are very harmful for aquatic life. The other compounds present in factory disposals are sodium nitrite, hydrazine, ammonia, biflouride and soda ash.

The pollution caused by some of these factories can be illustrated as follows. The wastes from a synthetic drug factory at Hyderabad contains about 70 chemicals and a mixture of concentrated acids. River Damodar in the highly industrial area of Durgapur Asansol in West Bengal receives about 1,60,000 cubic meters of waste water per day from eight major factories. About 100 km. area of Hoogly river receives nearly 350 outfalls, which contribute about 20 x 10 cubic meters of waste per day. These effluents are either dangerous to health. They destroy oxygen producing bacteria, or deplete the oxygen supply by utilizing it.

3. Agricultural source (Fertilizers) : Modern agricultural techniques require the use of millions of tons of artificial fertilizers to improve the fertility of land and obtain a better yield of crop. Excess of nitrates used as the fertilizers seep into ground water or are carried into ponds or lakes, On entering the drinking water, these produce several health hazards.

4. Pesticides and herbicides : Pesticides are widely used both in houses and in fields to eradicate the pests and protect the vegetation and stored grains. DDT is the most common pesticide used the world over. Similarly
herbicides are used to clear off the weeds. These are BHC, heptachior etc. these pesticides and herbicides are carried by wind through water and are finally washed down in the rivers and enter the seas. Along the food chain these accumulate in large amounts in the carnivores which are adversely affected by their large concentrations and become gradually reduced in number. On the other hand the pests have mutated to new species which are resistant to these pesticides.

5. Mineral oils : Mineral oil is discharged into water either by design or accident are extremely toxic and adversely affect the living organisms. On 8th March, 1967, an America supertanker, Torrey Canyon, ran aground on the rocks off the south-west coast of England and split open spreading a blanket of oil 45 cm. in thickness over the sea water. Britain had to spend £5000,000 in detergents to neutralize the oil polluting the sea surface. Another American oil tanker Trans Heron wrecked 60 miles west of Cannanore (S.India) on Sep.26, 174. This spread more than 350 tones of furnace oil near the Lakshadweep Islands.