Environment and Sustainable Development
Ancient man was living in jungles and was leading a harmonious life with the nature. But the modern man is living in the age of science and technology. Earlier, man was being controlled by the nature but now, man is controlling the natural environment. He has developed big cities, industries, agricultural lands, dams, means of transport, and communication etc. however this has caused depletion and degradation of natural environment because of the fact that he has utilized the various natural resources to a very large extent. Sustainable development means to maintain a balance between development and environment.
Following are some of the methods suggested for sustained development without depletion of natural resources and ecodegradation.
1 Reduction in man’s dependence on fossil fuels and development of alternate sources of energy like solar energy. Solar energy can be trapped by the development of photovoltaic cells, cooker, heaters etc.
2. Development of battery driven vehicles.
3. The use of biogas plants so that agricultural and animal wastes can be utilized for the production of energy.
4. The use of wind and tidal power should be explored more extensively.
5. Exploitation of sea and its resources.
6. Cultivation of more fuelwood trees and shrubs in the various areas of the land where they are not growing.
7.Recycling of Wastes.
Important principles of social responsibility
(i) To avoid misuse of national resources.
(ii) To avoid government regulation and control.
(iii) The iron law of responsibility.
(iv) To avoid class conflicts.
Social Environment : The social environment of business by certain factors like social behaviour, social interests, expectation level of education and understanding among people, social values and beliefs, social customs and traditions. The business which neglects these factors will be subjected to criticism. A business cannot build up its image in the society without considering the social objects and values.
Cultural environment : The cultural environment is formed by the art, sahitya and life style of the people. Arthur Millan in his Drama entitled “The Death of a Salesman” has stated that the pressure of competition influenced the thinking of a salesman in such a way that ultimately he committed suicide. The cultural values developing throughout the-world towards ‘Women’s liberation’, drug culture, youth-oriented society, etc. have influenced considerably the business policies.
The society and culture are the fundamental base of business. No business can overlook the country’s cultural heritage and values, if it wants to survive. Businessmen need to function on the basis of social expectations, desires, likes and preferences. They have to respect the human society, its cultural, values and traditions.